Many-sided DHN melanin – spotlight on its function in microcolonial black fungi

  • Dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin is produced by different Ascomycetes via slightly differing biosynthetic routes. The polyketide synthases (PKS) release the heptaketide YWA1, the hexaketide AT4HN or the pentaketide T4HN. The first two products are deacetylated by ‘yellowish-green’ hydrolases to T4HN, and T4HN is further converted by a core set of enzymes to DHN. Final polymerization steps are accomplished by multicopper oxidases. DHN melanogenesis is often regulated in a spatial and temporal fashion resulting e.g. in melanized reproduction, survival and/or infection structures. Remarkable is the regulation of the DHN melanogenesis in the foliar plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: it involves two differently expressed PKSs providing the precursor in conidia and sclerotia, respectively (Schumacher 2016, Mol Microbiol). In contrast, a polyphyletic group of Ascomycetes (microcolonial fungi/ black yeast) dwelling in hostile habitats such as bare rock surfaces in hot and cold deserts,Dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin is produced by different Ascomycetes via slightly differing biosynthetic routes. The polyketide synthases (PKS) release the heptaketide YWA1, the hexaketide AT4HN or the pentaketide T4HN. The first two products are deacetylated by ‘yellowish-green’ hydrolases to T4HN, and T4HN is further converted by a core set of enzymes to DHN. Final polymerization steps are accomplished by multicopper oxidases. DHN melanogenesis is often regulated in a spatial and temporal fashion resulting e.g. in melanized reproduction, survival and/or infection structures. Remarkable is the regulation of the DHN melanogenesis in the foliar plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: it involves two differently expressed PKSs providing the precursor in conidia and sclerotia, respectively (Schumacher 2016, Mol Microbiol). In contrast, a polyphyletic group of Ascomycetes (microcolonial fungi/ black yeast) dwelling in hostile habitats such as bare rock surfaces in hot and cold deserts, exhibits constitutive melanogenesis. Here, DHN melanin builds a protective layer around all vegetative cells thus contributing to the survival of diverse environmental stresses even without specialized reproduction structures. As part of our continuing research on microcolonial rock-inhabiting fungi, we chose the genetically amenable Knufia petricola strain A95 (Nai et al. 2013, Fungal Genet Biol; Noack-Schönmann et al. 2014, AMB Express) for detailed studies. DHN-deficient mutants generated by targeted mutation of biosynthetic genes were studied with regard to the architecture of the cell wall and the EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) matrix, attachment to and weathering of olivine, as well as the tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. We will discuss the critical role of the outer cell surface (DHN melanin and EPS) in adhesion to the substrate and subsequent damage of the colonized surface.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Julia Schumacher
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2020
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere
Freie Schlagwörter:fungus; melanin; pigmentation
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Umweltverhalten von Materialien und Produkten
Veranstaltung:European Conference on Fungal Genetics (ECFG15)
Veranstaltungsort:Rome, Italy
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:17.02.2020
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:20.02.2020
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:24.03.2020
Referierte Publikation:Nein