Engineering failure analysis - Special Issue “A Tribute to A. Martens”

  • The 100th anniversary of the death of Adolf Martens will be commemorated on July 24th, 2014. He is eponymously remembered today through the term martensite, which was first used by Floris Osmond as a name for the metastable phase that results from rapid quenching of carbon steels. Born in 1850 near to Hagenow in the region Mecklenburg, Germany, Martens was one of the pioneers of materials engineering in 19th century Europe. Martens began his career working for the Prussian Eastern Railway before joining the Royal Industrial Academy in Berlin in 1880. In 1884, he was appointed director of the Royal Mechanical Experimental Station, a small institution associated to the academy. Failure analysis was continuously practiced at this institution, which became later the nucleus of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), for the 110 years since. The history of Martens will be dealt with in an in-depth article in this special issue. Since the 19th century,The 100th anniversary of the death of Adolf Martens will be commemorated on July 24th, 2014. He is eponymously remembered today through the term martensite, which was first used by Floris Osmond as a name for the metastable phase that results from rapid quenching of carbon steels. Born in 1850 near to Hagenow in the region Mecklenburg, Germany, Martens was one of the pioneers of materials engineering in 19th century Europe. Martens began his career working for the Prussian Eastern Railway before joining the Royal Industrial Academy in Berlin in 1880. In 1884, he was appointed director of the Royal Mechanical Experimental Station, a small institution associated to the academy. Failure analysis was continuously practiced at this institution, which became later the nucleus of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), for the 110 years since. The history of Martens will be dealt with in an in-depth article in this special issue. Since the 19th century, failure analysis techniques have been refined, and new methods of chemical analysis and non-destructive testing have been developed; however, the basic approach to failure analysis has not changed much since Martens' days. The basic tenets of failure analysis remain things like on-site inspection, extensive visual 'non-destructive' inspection, developing an understanding of the background story, performing materials testing, and 'connecting the dots.' Martens introduced and developed experimental techniques like macro photography, fractography, metallography, hardness measurements, and mechanical testing. Modern failure analysts continue adding even more techniques to this list, leading to a more interdisciplinary approach – which many would say is the only way to find the root causes of complex failure events. The present special issue of EFA presents an overview of more than 100 years of failure analysis at BAM and its predecessors, closing the circle from the beginnings of modern failure analysis done by Martens himself in the 1890s to its present-day application. This special issue starts with an excursion back to Martens' work and innovations and presents a newly translated original manuscript of Martens from 1890. Whereas some papers of Martens and his co-workers are well documented, only little can be found about failure analysis in the period from 1914 to the 1950s. Most documents of this period have not survived until today. Beginning in the 1960s more and more significant works are preserved, which were using the interdisciplinary approach of Martens. Since the beginning of the digital age in the 1980s almost all text documents are accessible, whereas digital images were stored since the 1990s. Since then the problem is no longer accessibility but copyright issues that prevent many interesting case studies from being published. Maybe the next generation of failure scientists can reveal some of them later on.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Persönliche Herausgeber/innen:R. Clegg, Christian Klinger, Dirk Bettge, César Roberto de Farias Azevedo
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenheft (Herausgeberschaft für das komplette Heft)
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2014
Organisationseinheit der BAM:5 Werkstofftechnik
5 Werkstofftechnik / 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe
9 Komponentensicherheit
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit
Verlag:Elsevier Science Publ.
Verlagsort:Oxford
Ausgabe/Heft:43
Erste Seite:1
Letzte Seite:280
URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13506307/43/supp/C
ISSN:1350-6307
ISSN:1873-1961
Verfügbarkeit des Volltexts:Papiergebundenes Belegexemplar in der Bibliothek der BAM vorhanden ("Hard-copy Access")
Bibliotheksstandort:ZE 51/43:2014
Datum der Freischaltung:20.02.2016
Referierte Publikation:Nein