TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Building response due to ground vibration - simple prediction model based on experience with detailed models and measurements
JF - International journal of acoustics and vibration
N2 - Construction work, such as pile driving and soil compaction, or road and railway traffic excite nearby buildings, and the perceptible or audible vibration can be a nuisance for nearby inhabitants. A simplified building model has been created for these situations, which includes the effects of soil-structure interaction, the low-frequency amplification along the height of the building as well as the high-frequency reduction and the floor resonances. The model consists of one wall for all supporting structures (walls and columns) and one floor for each storey. The effect of different floor resonance frequencies is included in a stochastic procedure. The soil is modelled by a spring and a viscous damper, and the free-field amplitudes of the soil are applied under this soil element.
The model can be calculated by transfer matrices or in a continuous wave-type version where an analytical solution can be evaluated numerically. The building response in the high-frequency (acoustic) region is calculated as mean values over wider frequency bands. The approach to an infinite building model can be found for these high frequencies and the corresponding soil-structure transfer can be described by the ratio of impedances at foundation level.
The rules for choosing the parameters to obtain realistic results are derived from complex calculations for example, for the stiffness and damping of building foundations and many measurements as for the damping of floor resonances. The influences on the floor resonance from the soil (damping) and the supporting structure (detuning) are important. Some more effects will be discussed by the simplified and detailed models and by measurements to establish a good understanding of ground-induced building vibrations.
Y1 - 2010
SN - 1027-5851
VL - 15
IS - 3
SP - 101
EP - 112
CY - St. Petersburg, Russia
ER -
TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
A1 - Said, Samir
T1 - Attenuation of ground vibrations due to different technical sources
JF - Earthquake engineering and engineering vibration
N2 - The attenuation of technically induced surface waves is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, nineteen measurements of ground vibrations induced by eight different technical sources including road and rail traffic, vibratory and impulsive construction work or pile driving, explosions, hammer impulses and mass drops are described, and it is shown that the technically induced ground vibrations exhibit a power-law attenuation ν ~ r -q where the exponents q are in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 and depend on the source types. Comparisons performed demonstrate that the measured exponents are considerably higher than theoretically expected. Some potential effects on ground vibration attenuation are theoretically analyzed. The most important effect is due to the material or scattering damping. Each frequency component is attenuated exponentially as exp(-kr), but for a broad-band excitation, the sum of the exponential laws also yields a power law but with a high exponent. Additional effects are discussed, for example the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave due to soil layering, which yields an additional exponent of 0.5 in cases of impulsive loading.
KW - Wave attenuation
KW - Environmental vibrations
KW - Field tests
KW - Material damping
KW - Scattering damping
KW - Rayleigh wave
Y1 - 2010
U6 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11803-010-0018-0
SN - 1671-3664
VL - 9
IS - 3
SP - 337
EP - 344
PB - Science Press
CY - Beijing, China
ER -
TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Technically induced surface wave fields, Part I: Measured attenuation and theoretical amplitude-distance laws
JF - Bulletin of the seismological society of America
N2 - The attenuation of the amplitudes with distance of technically induced surface wave fields is analyzed in theory and experiments. Experimental results of technically induced ground vibration are presented and collected from literature, which show a power-low attenuation A ~ r–q of amplitudes A with distance r and exponents q > 0.5 higher than for elastic surface waves. Additional attenuation effects are analyzed theoretically. The most important effect is due to the material or scattering damping. Each frequency component is attenuated exponentially as A ~ exp(–kr), but for a broadband excitation, the sum of the exponential laws yields a power law with a higher exponent. Some more effects are discussed, for example the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave due to the layering of the soil, which yields a stronger attenuation A ~ r–q–dq, including an additional exponent of dq = 0.5 in case of an impulsive loading.
Y1 - 2010
U6 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120090228
SN - 0037-1106
SN - 1943-3573
VL - 100
IS - 4
SP - 1528
EP - 1539
PB - Seismological Society of America
CY - El Cerito, Calif.
ER -
TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Technically induced surface wave fields, Part II: Measured and calculated admittance spectra
JF - Bulletin of the seismological society of America
N2 - Transfer admittance spectra of technically induced surface wave fields are analyzed in theory and experiments. Theoretical admittance spectra of layered soils are obtained by integration in wavenumber domain and compared with experimental admittances due to hammer or vibrator excitation. The admittance spectra are strongly influenced by the layering and damping of the soil. Deep stiff-soil layers yield a low-frequency cutoff, whereas a strong damping yields a high-frequency cutoff. A sharp cutoff in a narrow frequency band, which is measured at some sites, can be explained by a damping that increases with frequency, such as viscous material or scattering damping.
Y1 - 2010
U6 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120090229
SN - 0037-1106
SN - 1943-3573
VL - 100
IS - 4
SP - 1540
EP - 1550
PB - Seismological Society of America
CY - El Cerito, Calif.
ER -
TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Theoretical and experimental excitation force spectra for railway-induced ground vibration: vehicle-track-soil interaction, irregularities and soil measurements
JF - Vehicle system dynamics
N2 - Excitation force spectra are necessary for a realistic prediction of railway-induced ground vibration. The excitation forces cause the ground vibration and they are themselves a result of irregularities passed by the train. The methods of the related analyses - the wavenumber integration for the wave propagation in homogeneous or layered soils, the combined finite-element boundary-element method for the vehicle-track-soil interaction - have already been presented and are the base for the advanced topic of this contribution. This contribution determines excitation force spectra of railway traffic by two completely different methods. The forward analysis starts with vehicle, track and soil irregularities, which are taken from literature and axle-box measurements, calculates the vehicle-track interaction and gets theoretical force spectra as the result. The second method is a backward analysis from the measured ground vibration of railway traffic. A calculated or measured transfer function of the soil is used to determine the excitation force spectrum of the train. A number of measurements of different soils and different trains with different speeds are analysed in that way. Forward and backward analysis yield the same approximate force spectra with values around 1 kN for each axle and third of octave.
KW - Railway forces
KW - Vehicle-track interaction
KW - Irregularities
KW - Rail roughness
KW - Track alignment
KW - Wheel out-of-roundness
KW - Ground vibration
KW - Soil transfer function
Y1 - 2010
U6 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00423110802691515
SN - 0042-3114
VL - 48
IS - 2
SP - 235
EP - 261
PB - Taylor & Francis
CY - Basingstoke, Hants.
ER -
TY - GEN
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
ED - Tizani, W.
T1 - Vibration of buildings on pile groups due to railway traffic - finite-element boundary-element, approximating and prediction methods
T2 - ICCCBE 2010 - International conference on computing in civil and buildung engineering (Proceedings)
N2 - A finite-element boundary-element software for the dynamic interaction of flexible structures and the soil has been extended for pile foundation. The boundary element method for the soil uses the Green´s functions of the layered half-space which have been generalised for interior loads. Pile groups of 10 to 20 piles of different arrays are analysed and compared with single piles. Simplified models have been developed for a user-friendly, practice oriented prediction software for railway induced ground and building vibration.
KW - Boundary elements
KW - Soil-structure interaction
KW - Pile foundations
KW - Prediction software
Y1 - 2010
SN - 978-1-907284-60-1
IS - Paper 275
SP - 549
EP - 554
PB - Nottingham University Press
ER -
TY - JOUR
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Wave propagation in the elastic half-space due to an interior load and its application to ground vibration problems and buildings on pile foundations
JF - Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering
N2 - A method is presented which allows to calculate the wave-field in a homogeneous or layered soil in case of a dynamic interior load. The wave propagation along the surface, the distribution of the response over the depth, the horizontal propagation at different depths and the vertical downward propagation are shown and compared with the simpler surface solution of the half-space and the interior solution of the full-space. The complete wave-field (Green's function) is applied to the dynamic behaviour of piles and pile groups by use of a boundary element formulation. The stiffness, damping and – typically for piles – mass of different groups of piles are presented. Different group effects occur for lines, circles, grids, parallels and crosses of piles, which can be regarded as oscillations around average values. Moreover, the piles and pile groups behave almost like a damper for most of the frequencies. A building on a pile group that is excited by ground vibration due to surface or interior loads shows a reduction of the wave-field due to kinematic and inertial soil–building interaction effects. The results presented lead to simplified descriptions of the wave-field due to interior loads and of the soil–pile–building interaction which can be used for the prediction of technically induced vibration.
KW - Wave propagation
KW - Interior load
KW - Dynamic pile and pile group stiffness
KW - Kinematic and inertial soil-pile-building
KW - Interaction
Y1 - 2010
U6 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.04.003
SN - 0261-7277
SN - 0267-7261
VL - 30
IS - 10
SP - 925
EP - 936
PB - Elsevier Science
CY - Amsterdam
ER -
TY - GEN
A1 - Auersch, Lutz
T1 - Buildings on pile groups and railway induced vibration - finite-element boundary-element, approximating and prediction methods
T2 - ICCCBE, Int. Conf. on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering
Y1 - 2010
ER -