The Research on Fromm’s “Liberation of the Mind” [弗洛姆人的解放思想研究], Master thesis, Marxist Theory, Hubei Academy of Social Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China 2020.

  • 新兴科技带来了机器自动化工具,不断地缩短了人类的必要劳动时间量,技术理性使人类过上了更具人格尊严的物质生活。人类开启了一个>更富裕、更舒适、更享受<的新纪元。但与物质丰裕相伴随的,人的生存却遭受到前所未有的压抑。在建构新的工具系统过程中,人类毫不顾及技术理性的威胁,甚至把技术理性作为生存追求的最高目标。人的创造能力被导向到征服自然和利用自然,为人类创造享受性物质的方向去了,从而也使人类自身沦为工具技术系统的>附庸物<。在技术理性的作用下,机械工具高度自动化,工人的分工不断细小化,导致社会群体也不断>原子化<,人成为了机械工具的>原子部件<。人的主体性日益弱化,有时人的自我体验到:自己是一件>商品<,目标是尽力使自身更具有>商品属性<,具有>使用价值的可售性<,这时人的理性和人格必定异化了。人们总是追求与大多数人意志一致性。人们没有自我尊严感,日常情绪表现为恐惧、焦虑或疑虑、特别渴望得到他人的认可。人们己经同自身分离或疏离了,转而崇拜自己创造的产品和物质技术力量。本文以弗洛姆对资本主义社会中人的境况批判为基点。首先,揭示资本主义社会中人的生存境遇的异化。人与人之间充满无情的竞争、人被当作工具而利用、人遭受来自权威的压抑,并且在技术理性的驱动下,权威变种为更加隐蔽的控制力量。人的劳动异化了,劳动的成果不再属于劳动者,而成为劳动者的对立物。其次,论述弗洛姆对社会性格的批判。包括人的理性不断异化,人日益抽象化和量化、民主的异化,使人无论在任何条件下不得不顺从、人的物质欲望的异化。再次,探究弗洛姆对资本主义社会极端伦理的批判,他批判了人的极度自私利己主义、人的异化良心、人的扭曲享乐价值倾向、人在资本主义社会中对极端信仰追崇、人的功利主义道德观等内容。弗洛姆正是在对资本主义社会的不良现象批判后,提出人通往健全社会并实现人的自由解放之路的。人摆脱异化后人格尊严得以回归,人应该从经济、政治、文化三方面获得相应的解放,最终实现建构健全社会与人的自由解放的有机统一。
  • New technologies have brought automated tools that are constantly shortening the time necessary for human labor, and technological rationality enables human beings to live a more dignified life. Mankind has ushered in a new era of >greater affluence, greater comfort, and greater enjoyment.< But what followed is an unprecedented repression. In the process of constructing a new tool system, human beings ignore the threat of technological rationality and even regard it as the highest goal of survival. The creative ability of human beings is directed to conquer nature and utilize nature to create enjoyable materials for human beings, which makes them become the >appendage> of tool technology system. In the effect of technical rationality, mechanical tools are highly automated, and the division of labor becomes increasingly tiny, leading to the >atomization< of social groups, and human beings become the >atomic parts< of mechanical tools. Human subjectivity is increasingly weakened. For example, sometimes people realize that they are >commodities<, and the goal is to make themselves have >commodity attributes< and >saleability of use value<. At this time, human rationality and personality must be alienated. In terms of will, people always seek to be consistent with the majority. People have no self-respect, and their daily emotions are manifested by fear, anxiety or doubt, and a special desire for approval from others. People have become alienated from themselves and begin to worship the products and material technologies they have created. This paper is based on Fromm’s critique of human condition in capitalist society. First, it reveals the alienation of the human beings’ living environment in the capitalist society. People are full of ruthless competition, people are used as tools, people suffer from the repression of authority, and driven by technical rationality, authority becomes a hidden control force. Human labor is alienated, the fruits of labor no longer belong to laborers, but become the opposite of laborers. Secondly, it discusses Fromm’s criticism of social character, including the alienation of human rationality, the increasingly abstract and quantitative of human, the alienation of democracy and the alienation of human material desire. Third, it explores Fromm’s critique of extreme ethics in capitalist society. He criticizes man’s egoism, man’s alienation, man’s hedonic value tendency, man’s utilitarian morality and man’s extreme worship of faith in the capitalist society. Fromm criticizes the unhealthy phenomenon of the capitalist society, and proposes the road in which people lead to a sound society and realize their freedom and liberation. After getting rid of alienation, human dignity can be returned and people can be liberated in economy, politics and culture. Finally, people will realize the organic unity of constructing a sound society and people’s freedom and liberation. [Author's translation]

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Author:Yaoyu Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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