Study on the City Theory of Frankfurt School [法兰克福学派城市理论研究], Master thesis, Marxist Philosophy, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China 2020.

  • 法兰克福学派基于对当代城市问题的关切,发展形成了独具特色和理论价值的城市理论。从纵向看,法兰克福学派的城市批判理论经历了历史哲学批判时期、交往行为理论批判时期和承认理论批判时期。在历史哲学批判时期,霍克海默、阿多诺和弗洛姆等从工具理性批判的视角审视城市的问题,从不同角度对发达资本主义社会中占支配地位的工具理性进行了批判。在交往行为理论批判时期,哈贝马斯开始关注公共领域的结构转型和主体的社会整合力量等>社会性的内部关系<,通过交往行为的力量从社会内部解决社会出现的问题。在承认理论批判时期,霍耐特认为必须走规范性和经验性批判相结合的道路,用承认理论去重新审视社会道德。从横向看,法兰克福学派城市理论批判的主题主要包括四个方面,经济、文化、空间和心理。经济作为整个城市批判理论的基础,体现在工具理性成为企业和人们活动的法则、企业和技术成为新的统治形式和当代资本主义社会的剥削程度和异化程度的加深。文化是法兰克福学派城市批判的重点,文化不仅倒退为欺骗大众的>文化工业<,而且文化为城市人提供逃避自由的模式。空间是法兰克福学派城市批判的重要组成部分,《巴黎拱廊计划》指出城市空间是受资本支配的含混空间,《启蒙辩证法》指出城市空间在理性退化为工具理性语境下具有同质化、欺骗性的特征,《公共领域的结构转型》指出城市空间>公<>私<领域的趋渐融合,《为承认而斗争》构建了自由展现个体自主性的城市空间。心理是法兰克福学派城市批判的新领域,弗洛姆揭示人们逃避自由与社会人本主义伦理的沦丧,马尔库塞指出发达社会人的单向度发展,霍耐特构建爱、法律和团结从而试图给个体提供基本自信、自尊和自重。法兰克福学派城市理论是对马克思城市理论的继承与发展,它批判资本主义城市的异化发展,重绘城市空间样貌,重建城市心理样态,提供解决当代城市问题的新视角,努力实现现代人的自由全面发展。法兰克福学派城市对我们规划、建设和发展中国特色的社会主义城市,具有重大的启示作用。
  • The Frankfurt School has developed a distinctive and theoretically valuable theory of the city based on its concern for contemporary urban issues. Longitudinally, the Frankfurt School's critical theory of the city has gone through a period of historical-philosophical criticism, a period of interaction-act theory criticism and a period of recognition theory criticism. In the period of historical-philosophical critique, Horkheimer, Adorno and Fromm examined the city from the perspective of instrumental rationality and critiqued the dominant instrumental rationality in developed capitalist societies from different perspectives. In the critique of the act of interaction theory, Habermas began to focus on the >structural transformation of the public sphere< and the power of social integration of the subject as >internal relations of sociality<, solving the problems of society from within through the power of the act of interaction. In the critical period of recognition theory, Honneth argues that it is necessary to follow a path that combines normative and empirical criticism, using recognition theory to re-examine social morality. From a horizontal perspective, the themes of Frankfurt School’s urban theory criticism mainly include four aspects: economy, culture, space and psychology. The economy is the basis of the whole critical theory of the city, as reflected in the instrumental rationality that has become the law of business and people's activities, the new forms of domination by business and technology, and the deepening of exploitation and alienation in contemporary capitalist society. Culture is the focus of the Frankfurt School's urban critique, not only as a regressive >cultural industry< that deceives the masses, but also as a mode of >escape from freedom< for urbanites. Space is an important part of the Frankfurt School's urban critique, with >The Paris Arcade Project< pointing out that urban space is an ambiguous space dominated by capital, the >Dialectic of Enlightenment< pointing out that urban space is homogenized and deceptive in the context of the degeneration of reason into instrumental reason, and >The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere< pointing out the convergence of the >public< and >private< spheres of urban space. >The Struggle for Recognition< constructs an urban space that freely displays individual autonomy. Psychology is a new area of Frankfurt School urban critique, with Fromm revealing the flight from freedom and the decline of the humanist ethic in society, Marcuse pointing to the one-way development of the human being in developed societies, and Honneth constructing love, law and solidarity in an attempt to provide individuals with basic self-confidence, self-esteem and self-respect. The Frankfurt School theory of the city is an inheritance and development of Marx's theory of the city, which criticizes the alienated development of the capitalist city, redraws the spatial appearance of the city, reconstructs the psychological shape of the city, provides a new perspective on contemporary urban problems, and strives to achieve the free and comprehensive development of modern man. The city theory of Frankfort school has a significant enlightenment for us to plan, build and develop the socialist city with Chinese characteristics. [Automatic translation]

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Author:Xueting Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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