A Study of Fromm’s Thought of Escape from Freedom in the Perspective of Marxism [马克思主义视域下弗洛姆逃避自由思想研究], Master thesis, Marxist Theory, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China 2020.

  • 埃里希·弗洛姆是法兰克福学派的代表人物之一,是著名的社会心理学家、精神分析学家。弗洛姆致力于研究现代人的性格结构及有关心理因素和社会因素相作用的关系,他对二十世纪人类的自由困境进行了深刻的剖析,从个体的不自由状况出发,分析了现代人追求自由又逃离自由的原因,指出人们通过“权威主义”“破坏欲”“机械趋同”三种方式来逃避消极自由,摆脱孤独与无助。他认为需要通过爱和自发性的活动使人们获得力量和安全,实现积极自由,与异化了的“单向度的人”和缺乏自发性的机器人区分开来。从马克思主义的视角来看,弗洛姆的自由是一种理想中的状态和境界,但他过分强调心理因素对人的自由的作用,没有充分肯定物质生产的基本作用,也并未看到私有制是限制人自由的根本原因,忽略了阶级对抗,这使得他在对西方资本主义的态度上和马克思背道而驰。弗洛姆的异化思想具有人本主义抽象性,他期望通过自发活动实现自由的想法具有空想性,他对资本主义的批判具有不彻底性,依靠人类的自发活动和社会变革都不能从根本上解决自由问题。弗洛姆的逃避自由思想对于二十世纪人类文化精神的演进和丰富做出了积极贡献,拓宽了对自由问题的理解,丰富了社会变革的思想,创新了问题研究。
  • Erich Fromm, one of the representatives of the Frankfurt School, is a famous social psychologist and psychoanalyst. He analyzed the freedom dilemma of human beings in the twentieth century, and analyzed the reasons why modern people pursue freedom and escape from it. He points out that people escape from negative freedom through >authoritarianism<, >destructiveness< and >conformity<, and escape from loneliness and helplessness. He argues that people need to be empowered through love and spontaneity, to achieve positive freedom, and to distinguish themselves from alienated >one-way people< and robots who lack spontaneity. From a Marxist perspective, Fromm's freedom is an ideal state and realm, but he overemphasizes the role of psychological factors in human freedom, does not fully affirm the fundamental role of material production, does not see private ownership as the fundamental cause of restricting human freedom, and ignores class confrontation, which makes his attitude toward Western capitalism contrary to that of Marx. Fromm's idea of alienation is humanistic abstraction, his expectation of freedom through spontaneous activity is idealistic, his criticism of capitalism is incomplete, and relying on human spontaneous activity and social change cannot fundamentally solve the problem of freedom. Fromm's idea of escape from freedom has made a positive contribution to the evolution and enrichment of human culture in the twentieth century, broadening the understanding of the problem of freedom, enriching the idea of social change, and innovating the study of the problem. [Translation: www.DeepL/Translator, free version, 6/2021]

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Metadaten
Author:Hairu Wang
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Wang_Hairu_2020
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):
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