The Adolescent Image in Avant-garde Fictions [论先锋小说中的少年形象], Master thesis, Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 在先锋作家创造的小说世界中,少年成为一道别样的风景。他们一改传统文学作品中明媚阳光的正面形象,不再是作家形而上的精神寄托者,而成为非理性与原生态的代名词,展现出一幅人性深处的生存图景。先锋小说中的少年形象凝聚着作家的自觉意识,对这类少年的书写是先锋作家对自我的又一次认知和超越。本文对先锋小说中少年形象的探讨,有助于挖掘少年形象背后的深层意义内涵,探讨先锋作家的审美意蕴和少年情怀,揭示少年形象建构与个人体验、时代精神的互动关联,从而对先锋小说中的少年形象作出准确定位和客观评价,以期实现文本研究的学术价值。目前对于先锋小说的研究主要集中于语言研究、叙事结构研究、作家转型前后的对比等方面,较少涉及人物形象领域,即便有少数探究少年形象的文本,也难以形成具体的体系。本文主要采用文本细读法,从以下六个部分对先锋小说中的少年形象加以分析和探讨。绪论部分对自古以来的少年形象进行历时性梳理,从而引出先锋小说中少年形象的价值所在。同时,界定先锋小说和少年的概念和范围,综合分析当下学界对于少年形象的研究现状的不足与优势,进一步指出本文的创新点,即对先锋小说的少年形象进行整体梳理并找出他们的共通之处,从叙事学的角度对少年形象进行解剖,进一步解读先锋作家笔下少年形象独特的美学价值与文学史意义。第一章主要归纳并分析先锋小说中的少年形象类型及其内蕴。笔者运用詹姆斯·O·卢格在《人生发展心理学》中的相关理论,将先锋小说中的少年形象分为四类:伊甸园少年、病患少年、暴戾少年和追寻少年,通过对这些少年形象的分析,初步探寻少年形象背后的内蕴和寓意,为下文的研究作铺垫。第二章主要探讨先锋小说中少年形象的塑造方法。首先,福斯特的《小说面面观》中提及的扁平人物与先锋小说中的少年群像高度重合,少年的个性在小说中被极度淡化,体现出先锋作家寓言化写作的色彩;其次,弗洛姆的异化理论中提及人的异化乃是社会力量所致,这为本章研究生存环境的异化与人物异化之间的密切关联提供了理论依据;最后,叙事视角问题成为解读先锋作家笔下少年形象的可行路径。从全知全能视角向限知视角的转变,实则是后现代主义思维方式的外显。第三章主要探究先锋小说中少年形象的塑造根源。分为两个方面:其一是从文学思潮的影响进行探讨。>文学是人学<的观念被后现代主义思潮解构,少年的主体性失落;从>写什么<到>怎么写<的转变,预示着小说观念的根本蜕变,人物形象的弱化成了文体走向自觉的代价,叙事方法的变革为少年形象的塑造提供了另一种途径;其二是从具体作家的少年经历出发,选取先锋作家中的三位典型代表——余华、苏童和残雪,探讨先锋作家的少年情结对小说中少年形象塑造的影响,得出结论——书写少年意味着成年之后作家对自我的又一次认知和超越,是>此在<与>彼在<进行对话的独特方式。第四章主要阐述先锋小说中少年形象塑造的价值意义。先锋小说所塑造出的少年形象的美学价值主要体现在两个方面:其一是通过对少年身上>丑<的挖掘,扩大了艺术表现的范围,展现出少年原生态的本来面目和人性深处的生存图景;其二是作家的寓言化书写追求作品的深度寓意,这一方面强化了作者形而上的思考,另一方面又存在使文本变得生硬晦涩的弊端。同时,先锋小说中的少年形象具有反传统的文学史意义。通过和其他时期文学中少年形象的对比不难发现,先锋小说中的少年具有非理性的>本我<色彩,现实教育意义也不甚突出。对少年形象的刻画,不仅影响着先锋作家们转型之后的创作,也影响了张悦然、韩寒、郭敬明等>80后<作家的写作。结语部分对论文进行总体概括与升华,进一步阐释先锋小说中少年形象的独特意义和书写价值,指出先锋作家笔下少年形象塑造的不足之处,试图为后人的研究提供参考。先锋小说中的少年书写是一种寓言化书写,这个寓言由少年的暴力、死亡、欲望、追寻、疾病等各个方面组成,寓意隐藏在作家对于社会成规的颠覆中。先锋作家为读者揭示出少年生存的原生态面貌,通过刻意暴露写作痕迹的书写方式,反映了作家对文化困境的思考,为读者展现出人性被压抑、被碾压的惨痛状态,以此唤醒人们追本溯源的体悟。
  • In the world of fictions created by Avant-garde writers, adolescent becomes a different kind of scenery. They changed the positive images of the bright sunshine in traditional literary works. They are no longer the metaphysical spiritual trustees of writers, but have become synonymous with irrationality and original ecology, showing a picture of survival in the depths of human nature. The image of adolescents in the Avant-garde fictions condenses the consciousness of the writers. The writing of such adolescents is another recognition and transcendence of the self by the Avant-garde writers. This article’s discussion of the image of adolescents in Avant-garde fictions helps to explore the deep meaning behind the image of adolescents, discovers the aesthetic connotation and feelings of Avant-garde writers, and reveals the interaction between the construction of the adolescent’s image and personal experience and the spirit of the times. In order to realize the academic value of text research, the writer makes accurate positioning and objective evaluation of the adolescents in Avant-garde fictions. At present, the research on avant-garde fictions mainly focuses on language research, narrative structure research, and comparison between writers before and after transformation. It is less involved in the field of character images. Even if there are a few texts that explore the image of adolescents, it is difficult to form a specific system. This thesis comprehensively explores the adolescent images in Avant-garde fictions from the following aspects. The introduction part has a diachronic combing of adolescent images since ancient times, which leads to the value of adolescent images in Avant-garde fictions. At the same time, the concepts and scope of the Avant-garde fictions and adolescents were defined, and the current academic research on the current situation of the research on the image of adolescents was comprehensively analyzed. This thesis also pointed out that the innovation of this article is to sort out the adolescent images of Avant-garde fictions and find out their what they have in common is to dissect the adolescent images from the perspective of narratology, and to interpret the unique aesthetic value and literary history significance of the adolescent images in the Avantgarde writer’s pen. The first chapter mainly analyzes and summarizes the types of adolescent images in Avantgarde fictions. I uses James·O·Lugo’s related theories in Human Lifespan Development to divide the adolescent images in the Avant-garde fictions into four categories: Eden adolescents, sick adolescents, violent adolescents, and chasing adolescents. Through the analysis of these adolescent images, the meaning behind the adolescent images was initially explored, which paved the way for the following research. The second chapter mainly discusses the shaping method of the adolescent images in the Avant-garde fictions. First of all, the flat characters mentioned in Foster’s Aspects of The Novel are highly coincident with the adolescent group portraits in Avant-garde fictions. The personality of the adolescent is extremely dilute in the novel, reflecting the fabled writing of Avant-garde writers. Second, to begin with the Erich Fromm’s theory, it is mentioned that the alienation of people is caused by social forces, which provides a theoretical basis for this chapter to study the close relationship between the alienation of living environment and the alienation of characters. Finally, the issue of narrative perspective has become the interpretation of Avant-garde writers. The change from the perspective of omnipotent knowledge to limited knowledge is actually the manifestation of postmodernist thinking. The third chapter mainly explores the roots of shaping the image of adolescents in Avantgarde fictions. It mainly explores from two aspects. The first is to discuss the influence of literary thoughts. The concept of >literature is human studies< was deconstructed by postmodernist thoughts, and the adolescent’s subjectivity was lost. The change from >what to write< to >how to write< foreshadows the radical transformation of the concept of the fiction, and the weakening of the character image becomes a style Towards the price of self-awareness, the change of narrative method provides a different way for the shaping of the image of adolescents. Second, starting from the specific writer’s adolescent experience, three typical representatives of Avant-garde writers—Yu Hua, Su Tong, and Can Xue are discussed. Avant-garde writer’s adolescent complex influences the creation of adolescent image in fictions. For Avant-garde writers, writing teenagers means another recognition and transcendence of the self and a unique way to talk to the former self. The fourth chapter mainly expounds the value and significance of adolescent image formation in Avant-garde fictions. The aesthetic value of the adolescents shaped by the Avantgarde fictions mainly reflected in two aspects: one is that by digging the ugliness of the adolescents, the range of artistic expression is expanded, and the original appearance of the adolescents and the survival picture in the depth of human nature can be shown. The second is that the writer’s allegorical writing strengthens the author’s metaphysical thinking on the one hand by pursuing the deep allegorical meaning of the work, but on the other hand there is the problem of making the text obscure. At the same time, the image of adolescents in vanguard novels has anti-traditional literary history significance. By comparison with the image of adolescents in literature in other periods, the adolescents in Avant-garde fictions have an irrational >authentic< color, and the significance of actual education is not obvious. The portrayal of adolescent images not only affected the creation of Avant-garde writers after the transformation, but also affected the writing of >post-80 s< writers such as Zhang Yueran, Han Han, and Guo Jingming. The conclusion part summarizes and sublimates the thesis as a whole, further explains the unique significance and writing value of the adolescent image in Avant-garde fictions, and points out the shortcomings of shaping the adolescent image in Avant-garde writer’s pen, trying to provide reference for future generations. The adolescent writing in Avant-garde fictions is a kind of allegorical writing. This allegory is composed of the adolescent’s desire, death, disease, pursuit and other aspects, and the allegation is hidden in the writer’s subversion of social norms. Avant-garde writers reveal to readers the original ecological appearance of the adolescent. By deliberately exposing the writing traces, they reflect the writer’s thinking about cultural dilemmas, and showing readers the deprived and crushed human nature, in order to awaken people’s thinking of tracing the source. [Author's translation]

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Metadaten
Author:Wanru Ma
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Ma_Wanru_2020
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):
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