A Study on the Alienation in >Jazz< from Fromm’s Psychoanalytic Perspective [弗洛姆精神分析视野下《爵士乐》中的异化研究], Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 托尼·莫里森是当代著名的非裔美国作家之一,她的代表作品包括《最蓝的眼睛》《秀拉》《所罗门之歌》《爵士乐》《宠儿》和《天堂》。其中,1992年出版的小说《爵士乐》是她的>历史三部曲<之一。《爵士乐》的故事背景是1926年美国北方的一座大都市,莫里森运用拼接式的叙述方式,讲述了一段扭曲的三角恋故事,记录了故事主人公孤独不安的生存状态,揭露了黑人个体心灵在白人社会中所遭受到的冲击。小说中,主要人物自小缺失父母,基本的生存需求无法得到满足,精神受到重创,所以异化成为了他们无法逃脱的命运。鉴于此,本文在对这部小说进行细读的基础上,从弗洛姆精神分析的全新视角就这部小说中主要人物异化形式,异化的内外因素以及回归健全之路的问题进行了系统的研究。全文由五部分组成:引言、第一章、第二章、第三章与结论。引言部分主要介绍莫里森和她的作品,概述《爵士乐》的故事内容,综述《爵士乐》在国内外的研究状况,论述艾瑞克·弗洛姆的异化观,介绍本论文的研究方法,并阐述本研究的意义。第一章基于弗洛姆对异化形式的阐释分析了《爵士乐》中主要人物维奥纳特·特雷斯、乔·特雷斯和多卡斯·曼弗雷德的异化表现。他们都是将自己的主体边缘化的可怜人,唯有依靠外部力量才能感知自己的存在。维奥纳特爱上了一个不存在的金色男孩,并将其内化为自己的理想形象。依靠着这个虚构的男孩,她体验到了自己的潜在的力量。乔虽是男性,但是在建构自己身份的过程中,他甘愿放弃自己的思想和价值,转而臣服于他的爱人。而多卡斯一心沉迷于外部权威力量的控制,并在控制中感知自己的存在。最终他们都在对外部力量的屈服中得到满足,从而使自己异化与自身,同时也异化与他人。第二章从外部和内部两个方面来分析主要人物异化的原因。就外部原因而言,小说的主人公为了寻求更美好的生活从南方迁入北方。但是生活在白人聚集的大都市中,他们遭受了空前的种族暴力,也感受到了一种强烈的孤独感。最终他们将异化作为逃离不安和孤独的方法。危机重重的外部世界使他们的异化最终显现,但是他们内心的缺失却早已为他们的异化埋下了种子。对与母亲最初那条纽带的渴望始终在他们的心中叫嚣,为了得到短暂的满足,他们被迫寻找了一个替代者。为了与替代者建立起原始的纽带,为了体验完整的自己,他们放弃了自己的主体地位,最终与自己,同时也与他人发生了异化。第三章探析三个主要人物克服异化所采用的方式。遭遇丈夫背叛的维奥纳特爱上了情敌多卡斯,并将其她视为自己生命中缺失的女儿。因此,她找回了缺失已久的那条原始纽带,最终,又因为她对丈夫和家庭的爱而重归幸福生活。乔杀死了自己的爱人多卡斯,这一暴力行为最终帮助他走出异化的禁锢,回归平静的生活。而多卡斯则通过自我毁灭的方式实现了自我的意识,逃离了孤独恐惧的深渊。结论部分指出,小说中主要人物的异化是他们处于白人主流意识操纵的社会中不可避免的命运。一方面,美国社会的历史遗留问题使他们失去了原始纽带,另一方面,他们在白人主导的社会里又受尽了暴力与偏见。所以他们的内心始终充斥着孤独和不安之感。为了摆脱这样的感觉,他们无奈地放弃自己的主体地位,使自己与自己和他人发生异化。最终当他们想要找回自我,摆脱异化时,留给他们选择的只有两条路,一是通过暴力的毁灭手段,二是通过回归家庭之爱和社区之爱。所以小说中主要人物的事迹启示人们,如果想要重归平静,幸福地生活下去,应该通过爱的方式实现自身的完整性,最终摆脱异化。
  • Toni Morrison is one of the most famous contemporary African-American writers, and her representative works include >The Bluest Eye<, >Sula<, >Song of Solomon<, >Jazz<, >Beloved< and >Paradise<. Of these works, >Jazz< published in 1992 is a part of her trilogy of history. The background of this novel is set in a north City of America in the year of 1926. In this novel Toni Morrison tells a distorted triangle love, records the main characters’ isolated and insecure living condition, and reveals the inner trauma of the black. The main characters in this novel have lost their parents since their childhood, which causes their unsatisfied basic needs for preservation and inner trauma. Therefore, they eventually cannot escape from the destiny of being alienated. Based on close reading of this novel, this thesis attempts to systematically analyze the reflections of the alienation on the main characters, the external and internal causes of their alienation and their ways to return to sanity from the perspective of Fromm’s psychoanalysis. This thesis consists of five parts: Introduction, Chapter One, Chapter Two, Chapter Three and Conclusion. Introduction mainly introduces Toni Morrison and her works, discusses the themes of Jazz, and reviews the studies of Jazz both abroad and at home, elaborates Erich Fromm’s concept of alienation, and talks about the perspective of the study and the significance of this thesis. Chapter One summarizes the alienated forms of the main characters Violet Trace, Joe Trace and Dorcas Manfred in Jazz basing on the alienation theory of Erich Fromm. They are the poor people who marginalize their own subjects, and they can feel their own existence only by depending on the outside power. Violet loves a phantom golden boy and internalizes his perfect image. She can feel her own potential power by relying on the imaginary boy. Joe is a male character, but he is willing to give up his own thoughts and values and submits to his lover when he is in the process of building his identity. While Dorcas yearns for the controlling of the external authoritative power in which she can achieve her self-realization. Eventually, all of them satisfy themselves from their submission to their lovers, so they are alienated in the relationship with themselves as well as with others. Chapter Two analyzes the external and internal reasons for the alienation of the main characters. As for the external reasons, the main characters of this novel move into the north from the south for pursuing a better life, but they encounter the terrible racist violence and feel the overwhelming loneliness when they live in the white-dominated City. Finally, they survive themselves from insecurity and loneliness through alienation. The outside danger makes their alienation exposed, but their inner loss has ever planted the seeds of alienation for a long time. Their desire for the primary mother-child bond is clamoring, and for getting a temporary satisfaction, they are forced to find a substitute. For relating with the substitute and feeling their own self, they eventually give up their own subjects, and alien from themselves as well as others. Chapter Three analyzes the ways the three main characters employ to get rid of alienation. After Violet is betrayed by her husband, she regards her rival in love as her lost daughter. Because of her love to Dorcas, she regains the lost mother-daughter bond, and she eventually returns to a happy life through her love to her husband and her family. Joe kills his lover Dorcas, a violent act that helps him overcome his alienation and return to peace. However, Dorcas achieves her self-realization and escapes from the abyss of loneliness and insecurity through her act of self-destructiveness. Conclusion points out that the alienation of the main characters in >Jazz< is an unavoidable destiny in the society controlled by the white mainstream consciousness. On the one hand, the problems left over by history in America cause the loss of their primary ties, and on the other hand, they have suffered much from the violence and bias in the white-dominated society. Therefore, their inner heart is always filled with loneliness and insecurity. For getting rid of these feelings, they are forced to abandon their own subjects and alienate to themselves and to others. When they want to rebuild themselves and overcome alienation, there are only two ways. The first is to destroy, and the other is to achieve the individual integrity through the love in family and the love in community. Therefore, it is clear from the experiences of the characters in this novel that the best way to overcome alienation is to achieve the individual integrity in love if they desire to return to peace and happiness. [Author's translation]

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Metadaten
Author:Pan Fu
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Fu_Pan_2020
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):
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