Alienation and Salvation – Interpretation of >Little Fires Everywhere< from the Perspective of Fromm's Theory of Alienation [异化与救赎从 – 弗洛姆异化理论视角解读《小小小小的火》], Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, Liaoning, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 伍绮诗是美国新兴华裔女作家,《小小小小的火》是她继《无声告白》在文坛大火之后的最新作品。小说着眼于两个美国家庭,讲述了理查德森一家与米娅和她的女儿的相处以及发生的激烈碰撞。伍绮诗通过讲述她们不同的生活以及她们间的碰撞,深刻地揭露了美国社会里一些人病态与冷漠的异化状态。本文以弗洛姆的异化理论为指导,从人与自我的异化、人与人的异化和人与社会的异化三方面解析《小小小小的火》中的人物在生活中遭遇的异化困境,并通过揭示普遍的异化现象进一步探讨小说中异化的救赎方式。首先,人与自我产生了异化。人们受到社会规范的影响,压抑甚至失去自我主体性。通过创造性的活动与成熟的母爱,她们能坚定自我想法并找回最初的自我,从而实现自我异化的消解。其次,人与人之间也存在着异化现象。在现代社会中,为了各自的利益和成功,友情变得不再纯粹和无私。恋人因单纯地从自己的角度考虑问题而产生了误解。纯粹和深刻的关系需要成熟的爱。成熟的爱使人们彼此尊重和理解,继而帮助人们摆脱异化关系。最后,异化还渗入到了人与社会的关系之中。这种异化主要是有高消费观和一致化的社会文化造成的。高消费让人们失去了理性。一致的生活模式使得人们的生活单调且没有个性。通过建立一个健全的社会,人们能够树立健康的消费观以及拥有多样的文化生活方式,从而消解与社会的异化。通过对《小小小小的火》中异化现象和异化的救赎方式的探讨,本文尝试着为现代人的生存提供一些经验与教训。当人们处于异化状态时,他们应采取积极地方式将自己从异化之中拯救出来,并学会以创造性、爱和人道主义的方式与自我、他人及社会健康地相处。
  • Celeste Ng is a Chinese American female writer. >Little Fires Everywhere< is her latest work after >Everything I Never Told You< has achieved great success. Focusing on two American families, the novel tells how the Richardsons interact and conflict with Mia and her daughter. By depicting their different lives, Celeste Ng profoundly reveals the morbid alienated state of some people in American society. Based on Fromm’s alienation theory, this thesis analyzes the characters’ alienation dilemma in life in >Little Fires Everywhere< from three aspects: the alienation between man and self, the alienation between man and man, and the alienation between man and society. By revealing the general phenomenon of alienation, the thesis further discusses the salvation means of alienation in the novel.– Firstly, there is alienation between man and self. Influenced by social norms, people repress themselves and even lose their subjectivity. Through creative activities and mature maternal love, they firm their own ideas and find their original selves, so as to realize the salvation of self-alienation.– Secondly, alienation also exists between man and man. In modern society, for the sake of their interests and success, friendship is no longer pure and selfless. Lovers simply consider from their own point of view. Pure relationships require mature love. Mature love enables people to respect and understand each other, and then helps people eliminate alienated relationship.– Finally, alienation has penetrated into the relationship between man and society. This kind of alienation is mainly caused by high consumption concept and uniform social culture. High consumption makes people lose their rationality. Uniform living style makes people’s lives impersonal and monotonous. By establishing a sane society, people can own a healthy consumption concept and have a colorful cultural life, which dissolves their alienation from the society. Through the discussion of the alienation phenomenon and the salvation of alienation in >Little Fires Everywhere< this thesis attempts to provide some lessons for the survival of modern people. When people are in an alienated state, they should take effective means to save themselves from alienation, and learn to get along with themselves, others and society in a creative, loving and humanitarian way. [Author's translation]

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Author:Xiaoli Dong
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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