The Vicissitude and Value Interpretation of the Western Theories of the Unconscious [西方无意识理论的变迁与价值诠释], Master thesis, Foreign Philosophy, Yanbian University, Yanbian, Jilin, China 2013.

  • >无意识<在西方这一概念已经有着悠久的历史。很多哲学家、心理学家都对无意识有过关注和探究,但只有弗洛伊德赋予无意识以重要地位,使得无意识成为人类精神发展史上的一个重要领域①。无意识理论产生和发展对西方哲学、艺术及社会文化的发展都产生了巨大的影响。弗洛伊德对无意识发展的巨大贡献,在于他发现在人的精神生活中起决定作用的并非我们所熟知的意识,而是一种潜藏在意识之下并截然不同于传统理性的无意识。而弗洛伊德的精神分析学也正是建立在无意识的基础之上的。在弗洛伊德学说的基础上,荣格从原始神话和意象的角度重现研究,提出>集体无意识<,给无意识理论注入了新的内涵。在传统的精神分析学一蹶不振的时候,法国精神分析学家拉康提出>回到弗洛伊德的著作中<的口号,对其无意识学说加以改造并拓展,将无意识置入结构主义中来研究,修正了弗洛伊德的理论,给无意识理论注入了新的活力。无意识理论的研究逐渐渗透至文化社会领域。人本主义哲学家弗洛姆在吸收了精神分析的无意识理论的同时也对荣格的集体无意识提出怀疑,主张将无意识回归到现实经验当中,因此把无意识研究置入到人类社会结构中,创立了社会无意识理论。后现代理论活跃的的时代,新马克思主义者詹姆逊博采众说,把精神分析理论的无意识概念融入到马克思主义的社会政治学说中,.兼容其他观点,提出了>政治无意识<,为马克思主义的文化阐释学提供了一种新的借鉴方法。无意识理论的变迁轨迹清晰地显现在我们的眼前。本论文通过论述无意识理论在西方发展的几个不同阶段:弗洛伊德的>个体无意识理论<、荣格的>集体无意识理论<、拉康的>文化无意识理论<、弗洛姆的>社会无意识理论<、詹姆逊的>政治无意识理论<,并对这一理论得以发展的原因进行具体解析,以期从宏观上把握无意识理论在西方的大体发展脉络,明晰无意识理论的变迁轨迹。理论的价值还在于对实际的指导,因此论文从文化、.哲学、艺术及社会等不同角度来论述西方无意识理论的价值。关于西方无意识理论问题的研究,不仅具有重要的理论意义,而且具有广泛的实践应用价值。
  • The concept of >unconsciousness< in the west already has a long history. Many philosophers, psychologists have paid attention to the unconscious and inquiry this problem, but only Freud endows the unconscious with the important status and makes the unconscious become an important field in the history of the development of the human spirit. Theory of unconscious has a huge influence on western philosophy, literature and art, and even the whole development of humanities and social sciences. Freud’s huge contribution to the development of the unconsciousness, is that he found the decisive role played in the human spirit life is not the consciousness as we know but the unconscious which hides under consciousness and is entirely different from the traditional rationalism. And Freud’s psychoanalysis is also based on the unconscious. - On the basis of the theory of Freud, Jung’s >the collective unconscious< proceeds from the perspective of primitive myth and image, injects genetic and accumulate connotation into the theory of unconscious connotation and coats the unconscious with mysterious color. While the traditional psychoanalysis showing signs of decline, the French structuralist psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan puts forward the slogan of >go back to Freud’s writings<, transforms and expands the theory of the unconscious, places the unconscious into structuralism to study and corrects the Freud’s theory which injects new vitality into the unconscious. The researches for the unconscious theory are gradually penetrated to the cultural and social fields. Humanistic philosopher Fromm absorbs the psychoanalytic unconscious theory but in the meantime calls into question Jung’s collective unconscious; He advocates the unconscious to return to the experience of reality. So he puts the unconscious research into human society structure and establishes the social unconsciousness theory. Active age of postmodern theory, the new Marxist Jameson learning widely from others’ strong points, unites the Marxist concept of social politics with psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious, compatible with other views, has formed >the political-unconscious<, which provides a new reference method for a Marxist cultural hermeneutics. The vicissitude trajectory of the unconsciousness theory is clearly emerged in front of our eyes. - Through discussing different stages of the unconscious theory in the west: Freud’s >individual unconsciousness< theory, Jung’s >the collective unconscious< theory, Lacan’s >cultural unconscious theory>, Fromm’s >social unconsciousness< theory and Jameson’s >theory of the political unconscious< and analyzing the development of this theory in detail, the paper want to seize the development course of the unconscious theory in the west in general, and make the vicissitude of the unconscious theory clear. The value of theory is also guiding the practice. So the paper from the different angle such as culture, philosophy, art and society to discusses the value of the western theories of the unconscious. The research of western theories of the unconscious, has not only important theoretical significance, but also extensive practical application value. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Xia Yang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2013
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
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