About the Influence of Marx’s Concept of Freedom to Fromm’s Theory [论马克思自由观对弗洛姆自由观的影响], Master thesis, Basic Principles of Marxism, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China 2014.

  • 由作为每个人毕生所追求的理想生活状态,在不同的历史时期都受到研究者的关注。自由问题在马克思和弗洛姆的思想中同样占据着重要位置,但国内学者对二者自由观的关系关注较少。马克思的自由观立足于社会实践,经历了从>抽象自由<到>具体自由<的发展过程。他从现实生活中寻找>自由<的载体,在《关于费尔巴哈的提纲》中用>现实的人<代替了费尔巴哈意义上的>自然人<和某种超乎于人的神灵或绝对精神。在《德意志意识形态》中,马克思更加具体地把自由观建立在物质生产劳动的基础上,把自由看作随社会进程的推进而不断发展的动态过程。弗洛姆的自由观认为,当人们脱离母体这一>始发纽带<后便开始了个体化进程。个体化进程走得越远,个体受>始发纽带<的约束就越小,人们就会越自由。但随着人的社会化过程,社会的复杂性会对自由带来新的羁绊。在资本主义社会,人们表面上虽然摆脱了诸多束缚,但在心理上却陷入了空前的孤独与焦虑。人们为了逃避这种心理困境便选择了逃避自由。马克思在自由的内在规定性与研究方法方面都对弗洛姆产生了一定的影响。内在规定性主要包括马克思研究自由问题时所运用的异化理论,对自由载体的界定,以及在批判基础上对理想自由目标的规划及其自由的可实现性。这些都对弗洛姆研究中世纪与现代社会人类自由问题提供了可借鉴的视域。除此之外,弗洛姆在研究人类自由的历史唯物主义分析方法上对马克思也进行了评价与借鉴。弗洛姆认为马克思的历史唯物理论是人类思想史中对了解社会发展规律所作出的最持久最重要的贡献。当然,在受马克思研究方法的基础上,弗洛姆也有一定的创新之处,把自由纳入到了心理学范畴,从心理学的角度对自由予以了解读。
  • [Freedom as the pursuit of each person about ideal life state, different historical periods attracts scholars’ attention. Freedom in Marx and Fromm’s thought also occupies the important position, but the domestic scholars’ research rarely involved the comparison of the two kinds of freedom. Marx’s freedom idea based on social practice, has experienced from >abstract freedom< to >specific freedom< evolutionary process. Marx looking for the carrier of >freedom< from real life, he used >realistic people< to replace the emotional sense of the >natural person> and some other gods or absolute spirit. Marx’s idea of freedom based on material production labor, considers freedom along with the advancement of society and the dynamic process of continuous development. Fromm thought when people began leave the >initial bond< it means the beginning of individualized process. Individual process move further, the individual bound by >originating link< the less, people will get freer. But as the complexity of the social development, although people of capitalist society break away from the strictures on the surface, but people trap an unprecedented loneliness and anxiety psychologically. In order to avoid this kind of psychological predicament, people chose to escape from freedom. - The inherent regularity and research ways of Marx’ freedom has produced certain influence to Fromm’s freedom. The inherent regularity mainly includes the alienation theory when Marx research freedom problem, the definition of free freedom carrier, and the plan about the ideal dreamboat that based on the criticism and the reliability of freedom. The research of Fromm’s middle ages and modern society freedom can be drawn lessons from these points. In addition, Fromm evaluate and reference the historical materialism research methodology of Marx’ freedom. Fromm thought that Marx’s historical materialism theory is the most persistent and the most important contribution in the human history. Of course, except reference Marx’ research methods, Fromm also has the certain innovation. He put the freedom into the psychological category to analyze. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Tong Yang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2014
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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