Quest for Happy Life under Positive Freedom [在能动自由下追求幸福生活 - 论《金色笔记》中的自由观], Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China 2013 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 《金色笔记》是多丽丝•莱辛在1962年出版的著作,许多学者从女性主义及心理学等不同的角度研究此文本。本文运用美国思想家埃里希•弗洛姆出版于1941年《逃避自由》中关于>自由<的观点分析《金色笔记》中的自由观。文中的自由女性陷入了消极自由而无法自拔,从而无法达到埃里希•弗洛姆所认为的真正自由,即积极自由。现代人在无法解决生活琐事时会感到困惑、挫败,而表面光鲜的自由女性也不可避免地陷入消极的自由状态。当小说中的自由女性意识到自己陷入消极自由状态后,采用各种方法摆脱困境,但却徒劳无用。因此人们积极地面对自由的人生,用无私的爱和自发性工作,达到积极自由从而过上幸福生活。作者想通过这一视角来分析这部作品中自由女性面临的各种问题,给与当代女性几点如何获取积极自由的启示。本文由导论,主体和结论三个部分组成。导论简单地介绍了多丽丝•莱辛的生活背景以及主要作品,同时综述评论界对《金色笔记》已有的研究成果。主体主要由四个部分组成,解决自由女性如何摆脱消极自由的困境,达到积极自由从而实现自我、获得幸福。第一部分主要介绍自由思想发展的历史轨迹。着重介绍弗洛姆在《逃避自由》中的自由观。他将自由分为积极自由和消极自由。弗洛姆认为真正的自由就是实现积极自由。因此,本文应用这一理论来分析《金色笔记》中的自由观。第二部分介绍文本中>自由女性<以及>自由女性<所被赋予的讽刺意味。第三部分讨论和审视自由女性在追求自由的过程中陷入消极自由后所面临的困境。小说揭示女性在陷入消极自由后所面临的困境和障碍。第四部分主要分析实现积极自由的四种途径。其中爱和自发性地工作是弗洛姆提出的实现积极自由的主要方法。肯定女性自身存在和满足女性与他人的关联的需求是实现积极自由的另外两种途径。通过这四种途径,女性可以摆脱消极自由,达到积极自由从而实现自我,因为积极自由能使人们积极面对生活,实现自我潜力。结论部分主要分析了现代出现的>自由症候群<这一群体出现的原因以及这一群体所具有的症状。这一群体中的人们面临着小说中人物所而临的困境。当她们陷入消极自由,她们开始用各种机制逃避消极自由,过着水深火热的生活。人们得到自由的目的是为了得到幸福的生活,所以即使陷入消极自由的困境,人们依然不能放弃追求自由。女性应该肯定自身存在,保持与他人的和谐关系,用自己无私的爱和自发性的工作实现自身价值,实现积极自由获得幸福的生活。
  • >The Golden Notebook< is Loris Lessing’s masterpiece which was published in 1962. Many scholars have analyzed it from many perspectives, such as feminism, psychology and so on. The thesis tries to apply in Erich Fromm’s views on freedom which had put forward in Escape from Freedom in1941to analyze the novel from the theme-freedom. Free women in the novel were just caught into negative freedom, so they were go into the wrong way and were remote to positive freedom. In the modern society, people feel puzzled and frustrated when they cannot deal with the matters of life. The flashy free women also cannot avoid falling into negative freedom due to all kinds of matters. When they realize that they are caught into negative freedom, most of people will take all kinds of measures to make them get rid of the plights, but their efforts were in vain. Therefore, people should adapt to their state actively, work spontaneously and love other people without rewards to get positive freedom, gaining a happy life. The author wants to analyze all kinds of matters that free women faced in the novel so as to give modern women some apocalypses how to get the freedom. - This thesis consists of three major parts: introduction, body and conclusion.– The introduction includes a brief introduction of Doris Lessing and a survey of studies on The Golden Notebook.– The body part has four chapters, dealing with how free women get rid of the plights with negative freedom and get real freedom with positive freedom.– The first part introduces the theoretical approaches to pursuing real freedom. At first, I make a summary of the development of freedom. This part gives a detail depiction of Fromm’s freedom conception-negative freedom and positive freedom. Furthermore it applies this conception to the novel in a general way.– The second part introduces two free women in the novel-Anna and Molly. In the meanwhile, it discusses the ironical sense of free women.– The third part further talks about dilemma of free women under negative freedom, telling the difficulties and confusions of female after they were caught in negative freedom in the process of seeking freedom.– In the fourth part. I analyze four essential ways to get positive freedom. Love and productive work are two essential ways which were put forward by Fromm. Self-identity recognition and satisfaction of associations with others can be treated as another two approaches to realize positive freedom. Then I analyze how the characters with a terrible state use these methods to cast off negative freedom and get positive freedom. After reaching positive freedom, they also realize their individuality, even though they return to a traditional life finally. Because positive freedom can help people live actively and realize their potentialities fully. - The conclusion analyzes the reasons why >Freedom Syndrome< appears in modern society and the features which the people own. People in this group have met the same matters which the characters had faced in the novel. When caught in negative freedom, they have used all kinds of approaches to escape this freedom. The purpose that people go after freedom is to gain a happy life. Even if caught in negative freedom, people still insist on seeking freedom. Therefore, modern people should make others recognize their identities and get a harmonious relationship with others, then work spontaneously and love others without rewards to realize positive freedom, living a happy life. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Wei Liu
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2013
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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