The Research on Erich Fromm’s Thoughts of Human Nature [弗洛姆人性思想研究], Master thesis, Ethics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China 2012.

  • 埃里希•弗洛姆是法兰克福学派早期的重要成员,也是弗洛伊德主义的马克思主义流派的核心人物。弗洛姆从现实的社会生活出发来探讨人性,不仅强调生物因素对人性的作用,还重视社会政治经济结构对人性的影响,因此人性在结构上是一种囊括社会属性和自然属性、理性思维和情感意志、群体性和个体性等在内的多层次的总体人性。弗洛姆认为处在现实社会生活之中的个人性善或者性恶,不仅取决于家庭环境、文化氛围、社会环境等多种因素的影响,更重要的是具体个人自身选择的结果。弗洛姆鼓励人们抑恶扬善,努力实现善的潜能或倾向,逐步完善人性。弗洛姆也从生物进化学的角度对人性做出了解读,从人类所特有的生存境遇中来研究人性,提出>人的本质就是人的生存所固有的矛盾<的观点。根据这种生存境遇而产生的种种生存矛盾的不同表现,将此区分为>生存的两歧<和>历史的两歧<。由此出发,认为存在着>相关联的需要、超越的需要、生存根基的需要、自我认同的需要、倾向性与献身方式的需要<等五种心理需要。>性格<这一概念的引入是弗洛姆人性思想的一个重要创举,这根源于马克思把人性分为两类,一是>人的一般本性<,二是根据具体的历史时代情境而>发生了变化的人的本性<的观点。在有关性格<的问题上,他区分了个人性格和社会性格,并且把社会性格看作是经济基础与上层建筑之间一个桥梁或者纽带。这是对马克思主义理论的一个十分重要的补充,也为我们观察社会问题提供了一个崭新的视角。笔者认为,弗洛姆的人性思想,一方面在研究方法、现代社会人心内涵解读等方面存在着历史合理性;另一方面,也存在着对意志、情感等非理性因素作用夸大、思想内在矛盾等诸多理论局限性,这是由弗洛姆综合不同理论思想研究的特质所决定的。
  • Erich Fromm was an important figure of the Frankfurt School in its early stage, and also a core leader in the Freudianism Marxism. From the reality of the social life to explore the human nature, not only did he emphasize the effect of the biological factors, Fromm but also paid much attention on the social political and economic structure, so the human nature was a overall human nature of multiple levels, including social attribute and nature attribute, rational thinking and emotional activity, group and individual, and other aspects. Fromm thought individual good or evil in the reality of social live not only did depend on the family environment, culture atmosphere, social environment and other factors, but also was the results of the specific personal selection. Fromm encouraged people to speak well of your friends, say nothing of your enemy, strived to achieve good potential or tendency, and gradually perfected the thought of human nature. - At the same time, Fromm made an interpretation of the human nature from the evolutionary biology perspective, and studied the human nature deeply rooted in the unique of the human survival environment, and drew the conclusion that >the essence of man was the inherent paradox of the human existence<. According to such existence situation leading to a variety of different survival contradiction, Fromm made a distinction between >existential dichotomy< and >historical dichotomy<. In this view, he thought there existed five kinds of psychological need: the need of being related, the need of surpass, the need of finding survival root, the need of seeking confirmation, the need of tendency and devotion. - The concept of the character being introduced to Fromm’s thought of human nature was an important pioneering work, which derived from the Marxism that the human nature was put into two categories, one was >the general nature of man<, two was >the changed human nature< based on the specific historical context. About the character, Fromm made a distinction between individual character and social character, and treated the social character as a bridge or ligament between the economic foun-dation and the superstructure. It was an important complement to the Marxism, and provided a new angle of view to observe the social problems. - The author thinks, Fromm’s thought of human nature, on one hand has certain historical rationality of the study on the research method, the interpretation of modern social public feeling connotation; on the other hand, due to exaggerating the effect of the will, emotion and other irrational factors and inherent contradiction in the idea, his thought of human nature has some theoretical limitations. This is due to the trait of Fromm trying to synthesize different theories of different ideologists. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Shuqin Ji
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2012
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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