Interpretation of the Path of Humanity: Its Significance of Marxist Perspective – From the Methodological Flaws of Western Marxist Theory of Human Nature [人性论的解读路径:马克思的视角及其意义——从西方马克思主义人性论的方法论缺陷谈起]

  • 弗洛姆、布洛赫、马斯洛等西方马克思主义学家在建构其人学理论时,只是把人性当作一个客观的事实来看待,在方法论上拘泥于非历史性的伦理学或心理学方法,无法进入马克思的历史唯物主义方法论视域,因而是一种抽象的人性论,这也导致他们不能准确地把握人性论的实质。阿尔都塞虽然指出了仅仅从人道主义视角来理解马克思的错误所在,但由于他形而上学地放大了方法论的作用而忽视了马克思重要的思想特质。1844年写作《穆勒评注》时期的青年马克思,由于撇开了对社会历史生产过程的深入分析而直接进入到对人性、人道主义和异化的批判性研究,因而还不具备历史地分析人性的思想基础;在《神圣家族》中,马克思之前所持有的异化式的人道主义逐渐为现实的人道主义所代替;1845年之后,马克思对费尔巴哈和蒲鲁东的抽象人性论进行了集中批判;在《1857—1858年经济学手稿》中,马克思从资本主义生产过程的发展性间接地阐释了认识人性的科学路径问题。
  • Fromm, Bloch, Maslow and other Western Marxist scientists in the construction of its people when theory, just as an objective fact of human nature to look, stick to the non-historical methodology ethical or psychological methods, cannot enter Marx's historical materialism methodology sight, so it is an abstract theory of human nature, which led to them can not accurately grasp the essence of Human Nature. Althusser while indicating only from a humanitarian perspective to understand Marx's error lies, but because of his metaphysics amplify the role of methodology and ignore the important ideas of Marx qualities. 1844 Youth Writing >Muller Commentary< period of Marx, since apart from the in-depth analysis of the social history of the production process and go directly to the critical study of human nature, humanitarian and alienation, and thus do not have a historical analysis of human thought basis; in the >holy family<, held by the alienation Marx before some type of humanitarian gradually replaced by the reality of humanitarian; after 1845, Marx Feuerbach and Proudhon's theory of human nature were focused criticism; in >1857-1858 Economics manuscripts<, the development of capitalism from Marx production process indirectly illustrates the scientific understanding of human nature path problem. [Automatic translation]

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Author:Guangli Cheng
Parent Title (Chinese):Theoretical Investigation [理论探讨], No. 2 (2016), pp. 60-64.
Document Type:Articles
Year of first Publication:2016
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Articles / Artikel
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Articles / Artikel
Licence (German):