On Fromm’s Human Existence Theory (弗洛姆关于人的生存方式理论研究], Doctoral dissertation, Overseas Marxism, Fudan University, Shanghai, China 2013.

  • 埃里希•弗洛姆创立关于人的生存方式理论的目的是为了给当代人所处的生存困境寻找解决的方法。纵观弗洛姆的作品,其中的分析社会问题的最重要的切入点是工业化或过度市场化对人的生存处境和精神的扭曲。他继承并发展了马克思关于>人的全面而自由的发展<理论,全方位总结了处于资本社会中的人生存方式的特点,深刻的剖析和批判了当代资本主义社会给人带来的人性异化和人格病态。在弗洛姆看来,要想消除人性的异化,矫正病态的人格,唯有消除现有>重占有<的生活方式,代之以>重存在<的生活方式。弗洛伊德的精神分析理论、禅宗的>开悟<思想以及马克思的有关人道主义、异化劳动的论述对弗洛姆学说的形成有着直接的影响。萦绕于犹太人家庭出身的孤独心境、敏感于世界大战的多舛时代,弗洛姆借助马克思的相关论述形成对社会和时代的整体认知。他把马克思哲学解释为以人本主义贯穿始终的学说,认为这也是马克思思想价值和逻辑统一的原因之所在。马克思把生存价值是人类追求的终极目标,认为这是规定人类各种行动的终极原因,人类生命的本质就在于生存。弗洛姆继承马克思的生存论思想,进一步区分了>占有<(to have)和>存在<(to be) 种不同类型的人类生存方式。其中,重占有的生存方式是建立在私有财产、利润和强权这三大支柱之上的,而与之相对应的重存在的生存方式则是以主体独立、自由和批判理性为基础的,人的积极主动地生存状态,在这种状态中主体>体验到自己是自己活动的主体。<以重占有为主导生活方式的社会,其基本的经济特征是数量化和抽象化,人们在深层次上都缺乏任何满足感,其消费渴求完全与人的真实需要背离。政治领域当中的普选退化成盲目的偶像崇拜,人们的抉择很大程度上是受各种宣传和广告引导的。在此社会中,有形的、公开的权威转向无名的、不可见的、异化了的权威,利润、经济需要、市场、常识、舆论,>集体<所做、所想、所感受的一切替代了有形权威所发布的禁令。于是主体自身受制于各种无名权威,主体性丧失,求同感蔓延,新的道德要求人们必须学会放弃自我,成为群体的一部分,并且必须喜欢这种状态。在这样的背景之下,教育只注重使学生学习尽可能多的知识,却忽视学生自主思考的时间,而宗教则丧失了宗教本身固有的情感慰籍的作用,转而以劳动、财产、利润和强力为>神圣<的信条,其作为一种意识形态其目的仅仅在于防止人们没有纪律而威胁到社会制度。要从重占有的生存方式向中存在的生存方式转变,弗洛姆认为首先应该从经济领域中进行改革确立生产领域中的以人为本以及公有制社会主义原则,使工人用积极地参与生产所来的满足感来取代对金钱、名誉、地位和权利的追求;人们的消费也应该从真实的人性出发、遵从人道化的方式进行。政治领域的变革强调必须要确立人的主导地位,建立新型的参与性民主,用人道主义的管理来替代官僚主义的管理,禁止一切商业的和政治的意识形态,构建永久和平的世界。文化领域之教育的变革,要将其基本出发点确定为>人的成长<,即目标是促进人的自由、全面的发展,使学生由被动学习变为主动思考,同时将教育的对象将覆盖所有年龄段的人群,绵延于个体生命的始终。以生存为导向的宗教致力于使人能够有能力超越自我的狭隘性和根本的孤独感,它把对所有人的一致性及对生命与人性的忠诚视为最高信条,反对任何形式的偶像崇拜。要想使生存方式取得真正意义上的转变,弗洛姆提出不但要重视人的经济、政治、文化生活的改善,还要促进人的精神面貌的革新,使得人的本质真正得到实现,即进行新人和新社会、心理革命和全面的社会革命。这就需要注重社会性格的塑造,使其通过生产方式和导致社会分化的方式所构成的社会实践来影响社会的个体成员。当代中国正在深入推进现代化建设,一方面传统的生活方式不断地在遭到侵蚀,另一方面又面临着消费主义的威胁。如何在推进现代化的过程中实现与传统优良生活方式的衔接,同时有效规避消费主义的消极后果,弗洛姆重生存的生活方式理论对我们来说具有很好的借鉴价值和指导意义,它可以打断物质消费领域>更多<与>更好<之间的联系,使>更好<与>更少<结合在一起,从而引导人们在生产领域而不是在消费领域中获得满足,并使这种满足更多地落实在精神和文化领域。目前国家所推行的科学发展观强调>以人为本<,追求全面协调可持续的发展,这已经反映了人们对生活方式变革的某种自觉。当然,弗洛姆的理论应用于中国的当下,我们还应该对其限度保持一份清醒。show moreshow less
  • The focus of Erich Fromm’s theory is how to walk out of the survival dilemma and find solutionsThe focus of Erich Fromm’s theory is how to walk out of the survival dilemma and find solutions for the modern human being. All of his research throughout his whole life is for the survival dilemma and mentality issues. He inherited and developed Marx’s All-round Development of Humans Theory, summarized people’s living style in capitalist society, analyzed and criticized the modern capitalist society causes the alienation of human nature and morbid personality. From his perspective, the only solution is to shift the living style from >to have< to >to be<. Fromm’s theory is directly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis, Zen’s Enlightens and Marx’s humanitarianism and Alienated Labor. The solitude because of the Jewish family background was haunted in Fromm’s head, and he was very sensitive to the tough time in World War. He was inspired by Marx’s correlated statement to form his recognitions of the society and times. From Fromm’s perspective, the philosophy of Marx all throughout was humanism, which was the exact value of Max’s thoughts and logics, and this was the reason of the consistence of the value of Marx’s thoughts and logic. The ultimate object being pursued pursuing by human being is the value of survival. This was the ultimate reason for which regulates the actions of the human being. The essence of the human life is survival. Fromm inherited the survival theory from Marx and distinguished two kinds of human existing forms – to have and to be. The survival form which emphasize on to have is built by three pillows, which is including the private property, profit and power, which the prerequisites of the survival form which emphasis on to be are independence freedom and critical reasoning. The character of this form is to actively survive and experiencing that the person himself is an active agent of survival. The economy of having-oriented society is featured by being quantitative and abstract. People are in need of lacking any satisfactions in depth, their consuming desire is alienate with their real needs. General election was degraded to blind worship in the political area. People’s choice was influenced by the propagating and advertising. In this society, tangible and open authority was turned to un-known invisible alienated authority. The invisible alienated authority includes profit, economic needs, market, common sense, public opinions, collective action, collective ways of thinking, and feelings of the community. All above stuff have replaced the decree of the visible authority. Active agent was enslaved to unknown authority, subjectivity was lost, convergence was spread, new moral demands people to learn how to lose himself to become part of the group, and forced people to like the situation. In this context, education forces students to acquire more knowledge, Religion was lost the function of emotional relief, and it facilitated labor, property, profit and power become the sacred belief. Instead of the consoling and caring, religions display a hardcore worship toward profits. As a consequence, religions constrain on people’s behavior and maintain the social hierarchies. In order to shift the living style from >to have< to >to be<, From the Fromm’s perspective, firstly, reform should be on economic area to set up principles of putting people first and socialist state-owned economy. This would enable the workers’ satisfactions generated from actively participate in working to replace their pursuing of money, reputation, social statue and power. People’s consumption consuming needs should base on human nature in a humanitarian way. Secondly, the reforms on political area emphasize on setting up the people’s predominant role and created the new model of participatory democracy, shifting the bureaucratic management humanitarian management and to create a peaceful world forever. The basic consideration of reforms in cultural area is to boost set up the people’s development. Therefore, its goal is to advance human free and all-around development, and help students transfer passive learning into active thinking, make the education available to people from different ages, which could cover the life time of human being. The survival oriented religion is to help people to surpass their narrow minds and loneliness. Their supreme belief is uniformity of all and their loyalty to life and human nature, this religion is against all kinds of idol warship. - In order to transform the living style thoroughly, Fromm’s suggestion is not only for people’s economic, political and cultural improvement, but also the aspect of spiritual outlook, which could achieve people’s potential. This process is a social revolution of new life, new society and psychological change. Therefore, the social character needs reshaping, and make the production mode and social practice which may cause the social differentiation possible to influence the individuals. China is striving to modernization currently. On one hand, the traditional living style is destroyed; on the other hand, it was threatened by consumerism. Fromm’s theory on living style survival is inspiring, it explains how to connect achieving modernization and the traditional good living style, and meantime avoid the side effects of consumerism. What he advocates is more consumption with a stronger correlation with life. This theory facilitates people obtaining satisfactions on production area, and those satisfactions lie on spiritual and cultural area. The scientific outlook on development adopted by Chinese government emphasizes man as the noumenon, and pursuing all round, harmonious and sustainable development. This reflects people’s consciousness on the reform of living style. Of course, we should also be aware of the Fromm’s theory’s interpretation on the current Chinese society. [Author’s translation]show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Yue Chen
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2013
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Chen_Yue_2013
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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