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Fromm's Evasion of Free Psychology [弗洛姆逃避自由心理机制研究], Master thesis, Philosophy, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China 2018.

  • 艾里希•弗洛姆是美籍德国犹太人,20世纪最著名的哲学家之一,他在哲学、宗教学、心理学、医学等多个领域都有非常卓越的建树。弗洛姆终生致力于弗洛伊德学说研究,逃避自由的心理机制是他的学术思想中最核心的部分,其观点散见于《为自己的人》《逃避自由》《健全的社会》和《爱的艺术》等著作之中。本文以《逃避自由》为主要解析资源,结合弗洛姆的其他专著、论文等来论述哲学家的逃避自由机制。逃避自由的心理机制始于20世纪30-40年代,身居德国的弗洛姆深刻地感受到这一时期以希特勒为首的纳粹党所掀起的民族主义浪潮。这种暗流涌动的思想中深藏着潜在的社会悲剧和不可预知的人类未来命运。有犹太人身份的弗洛姆更深刻地体会到犹太民族可能要遭遇的磨难。自由,这个人类所追求的美好生活状态,其实恰恰可能是需要逃避的灾难。正是在这样的背景之下,弗洛姆以弗洛伊德和荣格的心理分析学说为依据,对人逃避自由的原因进行了深度剖析,形成了他关于逃避自由的社会心理学理论。本论文共分四个部分,分别从逃避自由机制的原因、内涵、解决方法、意义和价值几个方面分析弗洛姆的理论。《绪论》部分主要论述了弗洛姆的民族身份和他学术道路和学术思想的关联以及对自由概念和逃避自由思想的根源进行了学术史的梳理,探讨了目前国内外对弗洛姆逃避自由机制的研究现状,并指出目前研究中尚有哪些主题存在可拓展的空间。第一章《逃避自由心理机制理论的生成背景》从个体和个体性概念入手来探讨自由和逃避自由思想的谱系,指出早在古希腊先贤的著作里(尤其是柏拉图)就存在对人自由意志的探讨。通过对自由谱系的勾勒,我们基本可以得出这样的结论,对于古希腊而言,自由和宇宙的神性有关,人在勇敢地说出>我<这个词之后,在形式上摆脱了与自然(宇宙)的关系,但从19世纪末20世纪初开始,随着弗洛伊德学说对人认知的刷新,自由不再是个体的私人叙事,而是对整个时代症候的诊断。弗洛姆正是在这个意义上开展自己的心理学研究的。第二章《逃避自由心理机制理论的切入路径》探讨了弗洛姆社会心理学的发生学原理,哲学家正是从宗教的角度发现逃避自由的路径和可能。弗洛姆之所以选择马丁•路德的宗教改革来分析宗教与自由的关系,是因为除了日常生活,宗教对于西方世界而言是窥见其行动秘密的重要线索。第三章《逃避自由心理机制的理论与现实》将重点放在逃避自由机制的具体情境和核心元素分析之上。具体而言,论文对弗洛姆理论视域中关于逃避机制中的几个重要术语进行了分析研究,确定了弗洛姆逃避自由的路径问题。最后,我们以希特勒的政治生涯和童年创伤为例,对逃避自由和个人意志的关系进行了分析,指出历史是许多因素的综合,并无规律可循,希特勒的存在完全是个偶然,但这个偶然却造成了世界性的灾难。
  • Erich Fromm, a German-born Jew of American nationality and famous philosopher of the 20th century, devoted his life to the study of Freudian theory. His core idea is the doctrine of freedom and escape from freedom. His views can be found in works such as >Man for Himself>, >Escape from Freedom<, >The Sane Society< and >The Art of Loving<. This paper uses >Escape from Freedom< as the main analytical resource, combining with Fromm’s other monographs and papers to discuss the philosopher’s escape freedom mechanism. The paper is divided into four parts, which are the introduction and the other three chapters. The psychological mechanism of escaping from freedom appeared in 1930s and 1940s. Fromm, who was living in Germany, was profoundly aware of the nationalist wave of the Nazi party led by Hitler during this period. The latent social tragedy and unpredictable future of human beings were hidden in this kind of undercurrent thoughts. Fromm with Jewish identity had a deeper understanding of the hardships that the Jewish people might have to face. Freedom, the human pursuit of a better state of life, in fact, was probably the disaster that people need to escape from. It was under the circumstance that Fromm, based on Freud and Jung’s theory of psychoanalysis, analyzed the reasons why people escape from freedom thoroughly, and formed his own theory of social psychology about escaping from freedom. The introduction mainly refers to three aspects of the paper. Initially, the relationship between Fromm’s ethnic identity and his academic research and ideology is analyzed. As a son of Rabbi, Fromm had long been aware of the particularity of his ethnic group. The relatively well-off family enabled him to have a comprehensive and good education, which laid a solid theoretical foundation for his academic studies in the United States. Furthermore, the academic history of the concept of freedom and the idea of escaping from freedom is studied, the current status of research on Fromm’s escape freedom mechanism at home and abroad is discussed, and it is pointed out that there is still some space for the extension of those themes in current research. Finally, the innovation of the paper and the application of theoretical discourse are explained.– The first chapter, Individual and Individuality – The Pedigree of Freedom, discusses the pedigree of freedom and escape from freedom from the concept of individual and individuality, and indicates that early in the writings of ancient Greek sages (especially Plato) there was a discussion on human’s free will. By outlining the pedigree of freedom, we can basically reach such a conclusion that for ancient Greece, freedom is related to the divinity of the universe, and man, after bravely uttering the word >I<, in form, got rid of the relationship with nature(the universe).Beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the renewal of human cognition by the Freudian theory, however, freedom is no longer an individual’s private narrative, but a diagnosis of the symptoms of the whole era. Fromm carried out his own psychological research in this sense.– The second chapter, The Religious Dimension and the Ideological Dimension of Freedom from the Perspective of Fromm’s Theory, explores the genesis principle of Fromm’s social psychology, and it is from the angle of religion that philosophers discovered the way and possibility of escape from freedom. The reason why Fromm chose Martin Luther’s religious reform to analyze the relationship between religion and freedom is that in addition to daily life, religion is an important clue for the western world to get a glimpse of its action secrets.– The third chapter, the reasons for escape from freedom and How to make it possible, focuses on the specific context and the analysis on the core element of the mechanism of escape from freedom. Particularly, several important terms about escape mechanism in Fromm’s theory are analyzed and studied, and the way of Fromm’s escape from freedom is also determined. Finally, taking Hitler’s political career and childhood trauma as an example, we analyze the relationship between escape from freedom and personal will, and point out that history is a synthesis of many factors, and there is no rule to follow. Hitler’s existence is entirely accidental. But this accident caused a worldwide disaster. [Author’s translation]

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Metadaten
Author:Qi Zheng
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2018
Release Date:2019/03/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Zheng_Qi_2018
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):