On the Dual Personality in Shusaku Endo’s Works >Scandal<, >Evil Spirit<, >Deep River< as Examples [论远藤周作作品中的双重人格 - 以《丑闻》《恶灵》《深河》为例], Master thesis, Comparative Literature and World Literature, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China 2019 [application of Fromm's therories to art].

  • 远藤周作(1923—1996)是日本当代著名的基督教作家。他的作品以艺术形式探讨神与人、信仰与人生、死与生等宗教主题,其长篇小说中的人物形象亦呈现出立体而复杂矛盾的性格特点。本文选取远藤周作的三部长篇小说《丑闻》《恶灵》及代表作《深河》为中心文本,试图以心理学的角度去阐释小说中人物的>双重人格<,揭示个体心理潜伏的阴暗欲望的表现和危害,进而探讨人物的救赎问题。论文首先分析作品中具有双重人格的四个人物形象:《丑闻》《深河》中共同具有>天使<与>恶魔<复杂人格的两位女性>万里子<和<美津子<;《丑闻》中所谓的>圣徒作家<胜吕本质上是一个经常出入色情场所的下流之徒;《恶灵》中利用>天使<面孔去引诱他人作恶、犯罪的>恶灵<南条英子。其次运用现代心理学理论探讨>双重人格<形成的原因。个体为了更好地在社会上生存,往往隐藏和压抑内心中阴暗、丑陋的欲望,即荣格所说的>阴影面<,向社会展现出美好的一面,这便形成了>双重人格<。三部小说中双重人格人物的>阴影面<与弗洛姆提出的>衰败综合症<中的>恋死<相关,因此结合文本加以分析。此外,在文学层面上,以莫里亚克作品中对罪与恶的理解,陀思妥耶夫斯基小说中复杂的人性来阐述其对远藤作品的影响。最后通过人物的命运走向探寻救赎之路。小说中的人物在>光<与>河<中认识了自我,灵魂得到净化,重新找寻到了人生的价值和意义。其中,>光<与>河<象征着给人拯救的>爱<。但是,仅凭被动地接受>爱<是不够的,个体还需要有>直面自我的勇气<,才能获得真正的救赎。远藤周作敏锐地看到了现代人为能够更好地在社会中生存,不得不压抑内心真实的欲望,以此符合社会的标准和期待,造成精神枯竭、破裂的问题。通过双重人格艺术形象的塑造,远藤试图告诉我们:个体要勇于发现内心隐藏的欲望,认识真实的自我,才能实现精神的统一和完整,从而达到荣格所说的>重返精神家园<。
  • Shusaku Endo (1923–1996) is a famous contemporary Christian writer in Japan. The biggest feature of his works is that he is good at exploring religious themes such as God and man, faith and life, death and life. The characters in his novels present complex contradictory character characteristics. This essay selects the three novels >Scandal<, >Evil Spirit< and the representative work >Deep River< of Shusaku Endo as the central text, tries to explain the >dual personality< of the characters in the novel from the perspective of psychology, reveals their latent dark desires and dangers, and the question of redemption. The thesis first analyzes the four characters with dual personality in the works: The >Scandal< and >Deep River<, the two women >Mariko< and >Mitsuko<, who have the complex personality of >angel< and >devil<; the so-called >Saint Writer< Suguro in the Scandal, is essentially a vulgar person who often goes into pornography; the >evil spirit< Nanjyou Eiko uses the >angel-like< face to lure others to commit crimes and do evil. Secondly, modern psychology theory is used to explore the reasons for the formation of >dual personality<. In order to survive better in society, individuals often hide and suppress the dark and ugly desires in the heart, that is, the >shadow< that Jung said, showing a beautiful side to the society, which forms a >dual personality<. The >shadow< of the dual personality characters in the three novels is related to >love death< in the >decline syndrome< proposed by Fromm, so it is combined with the text to analyze. In addition, on the literary level, the understanding of sin and evil in Mauriac’s works, the complex humanity in Dostojevsky’s novels explains its influence on Endo’s works. Finally, through the fate of the characters, explore the road to redemption. The characters in the novel know themselves in >light< and >river<, the soul is purified, and the value and meaning of life are re-finished. Among them, >light< and >river< symbolize the >love< that saves people. However, it is not e-nough to passively accept >love<. Individuals also need to have >the courage to face themselves< in order to obtain real salvation. Shusaku Endo keenly saw that modern people can survive in society better and have to suppress their inner desires in order to meet the standards and expectations of society and cause problems of mental exhaustion and breakdown. Through the shaping of the dual personality image, Endo tries to tell us that the individual must be brave enough to discover the hidden desires of the heart and understand the true self in order to realize the unity and integrity of the spirit, thus achieving the >return of spiritual home< that Jung said. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Jiangli Zheng
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2019
Release Date:2020/11/03
Format:no copy existent / keine Kopie vorhanden
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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