>The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844< in the Vision of Frankfurt School [法兰克福学派视域下的《1844年经济学哲学手稿》], Master thesis, Foreign Marxist Research, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, China 2017.

  • 法兰克福学派的社会批判理论具有很强的现实针对性,反映了19世纪30年代的时代特征。关于法兰克福学派的政治观点,主要反映在霍克海默、阿多诺、马尔库塞等人对大众文化理论的批判中。法兰克福学派被称为新马克思主义的代表派系,他们打破实证主义,以反实证主义的视角重新审视社会现状。法兰克福学派不仅继承了青年黑格尔学派的相关理论,而且受到叔本华和尼采非理性思想影响,还吸收了新康德主义和韦伯的文化批判理论。其中,马克思早期著作《1844年经济学哲学手稿》(以下简称《手稿》)中的异化概念对法兰克福学派影响最为深刻,他们以此为根基,创立了一套特色的社会批判理论体系,并由此进入到对资本主义意识形态批判中,在法兰克福学派理论家的眼中,批判是理论特色的标志,批判理论高于哲学,且与哲学思想形成对立。法兰克福学派的批判理论,批判否定一切现存的事物,同时,对一切事物真理追求复归到事物自身之中。20世纪的30年代,法兰克福学派批判视角开始转变,那时西方工人的运动处于低潮时期,法西斯的集权主义者在欧洲迅速崛起,在此种背景下,法兰克福学派的理论家们的研究重心不在是无产阶级所具有的强大的革命信念,而转向了对工人阶级意识形态研究,由此进入对《手稿》工人阶级的同情和关注的视域中。他们试图唤起人们理性觉醒,来打破实证主义的思维模式。在《启蒙辩证法》中,霍克海默和阿多诺指出从启蒙运动至今,人类的理性虽然获得了一些成就,但是与此同时,人类的理性坠入了实证主义思维模式中,在现代化的工业社会中,人类理性的思考和反思,沦为了奴隶,成为了工具,这种理性不在是服务于民,而是成为人类谋取利益的手段,理性的背后是一种钱权交易、是一场话剧表演、是一种景观社会。理性失去了为人类自由而奋斗的意义,不在是忠诚服务者,却成为人类的统治者。对此,法兰克福学派理论家在研究工业社会的高级文化、通俗文化等问题时,他们都围绕着对理性问题的研究。他们通过对资本主义的工业文化的批判,进而对整个意识形态的批判。在法兰克福学派对资本主义意识形态的批判中,我们可以来理解《手稿》对国民经济学家批判,马克思批判了国民经济学家所遵循的经济理性原则,是否科学,是否现实,是否符合工人的利益。法兰克福学派的理论家们对这种所谓的经济理性原则,进行了深刻的思考,揭示了资本主义经济理性的背后,所掩饰的个人经济利益、个人的权利以及人与人等级划分等问题。法兰克福学派以敏锐的视角发掘到资本主义经济理性原则背后,人类对理性意义错误的理解。由此,对理性问题的研究成为法克福学派理论家们新的研究路径。为了对理性问题的研究,马尔库塞和弗洛姆对《手稿》的异化理论进行分析,探究人类理性到底是什么?人类如何才能保持理性?他们对人的本质问题进行了深入的思考,并吸收了《手稿》的异化理论,且不局限于《手稿》涉及到的劳动产品异化等问题的研究范围,而是把异化问题的视域拓展到工业文化以及其它人类现实生活领域中,揭示出现实生活的方方面面也存在许多异化问题。马尔库塞对《手稿》异化劳动问题的研究,把劳动问题复归到现实,指出了人的劳动属性不属于自身的原因,失去的到底是什么?他们认为,劳动与人本质分离,根源是个性自由的丧失。此外,他们把马克思对人与劳动的关系研究,看成是理性自反性的折射,理性具有的自反性,可以对现实活动产生新的认识。马尔库塞、弗洛姆认为马克思和他们一样,也站在这样理性的视角,他们的理性基础都是重视人类的价值,强调个性自由和思维的能动性以及关心人的生命以和生存状况,由此他们共同走进了人道主义视域。马尔库塞和弗洛姆试图在人道主义视角中,唤起人们对人本质问题新认识,通过人道主义唤醒人们的良知,构建伦理道德价值观,来约束人们的活动。他们关注现实生活,对现实生活中存在的问题,进行人道主义批判。在现实生活中,他们对人个性自由的发展,进行考察、分析。通过现实生活中个性自由程度的考察,来判断当下人的理性是否真合理,是否真自由,是否真得到解放。施密特继承了马尔库塞和弗洛姆提出的新课题,施密特在《马克思的自然概念》一书中,把人对现实生活问题的理解,归于人与自然关系的研究。施密特继承了《手稿》人与自然关系的理解,并在此基础上提出,实践活动是连接人与自然关系的中介桥梁。但是,施密特并没有过于关注人的实践活动,认为对现实的关注不能只是实践活动,最重的是《手稿》中的感性思想,施密特把《手稿》中的感性思想与现实活动结合起来,认为感性的现实活动才是探求人类寻求真理的标准,施密特把情感问题与现实生活结合起来,关注人的情感、感受。由此看出施密特也陷入的马尔库塞的人道主义视角中,他们表达的情感是一致的。因此,施密特感性现实活动,最终也走进了人道主义视域。在法兰克福学派对感性问题的研究中,维尔默把感性、情感的研究纳入到对美学思想的研究。通过人对事物美的认识,来分析个人情感等问题。他追求情感产生的根源,挖掘美学思想中蕴含的感性思想。维尔默的美学思想与《手稿》美学思想不同,《手稿》指出>劳动创造了美<马克思认为人的美学思想来源于人的劳动过程,人在劳动中通过五官感受,产生了对美的认识,马克思强调个人与个人之间对美学思想认识的差异性,每个人对美的认识都是不同的。维尔默强调美学思想的大众化认同,认为人对美学思想统一认识是人与人之间思想发生碰撞后,产生对审美的统一。由此建构起统一的审美标准。可见维尔默美学思想是一个否定之否、不断批判再批判的过程。维尔默追求理性的方式其实是一种批判再批判的方式,他试图把美学思想蕴含的感性思想与理性统一起来,希望在感性中寻求人类的自由。虽然他把美学思想规范成标注化、实证化、统一化认识,企图打破了理性研究中存在的实证主义的缺陷,但是,却陷入感性抽象的视域。
  • The social critical theory of Frankfurt school has a strong realistic pertinence, which reflects the characteristics of the times in the 1830s. About the Frankfurt school’s political views, mainly reflected in Horkheimer and Adorno, Marcuse et al. Critique of mass culture theory in. The Frankfurt school is known as the representative of the new Marx doctrine, they break the positivism, re-examine the social status from the perspective of anti-positivism. The Frankfurt school not only inherited the relevant theories of the young Hagel School, but also influenced by the irrational thoughts of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, but also absorbed the Neo Kantian theory and the critical theory of culture of the United States. Among them, the 1844 Manuscript of economics and philosophy of Marx’s early works (hereinafter referred to as the >Manuscript<) of the concept of alienation in the Frankfurt school is most profound, they use it as the foundation, the system of social critical theory created a set of characteristics, and thus into the capitalist ideology, the Frankfurt school theorists in the eyes that is a sign of critical theoretical characteristics, critical theory is higher than that of philosophy, and the formation of opposition and philosophy. The critical theory of the Frankfurt school criticizes all existing things, and at the same time, the pursuit of the truth of all things is returned to the thing itself. In nineteenth Century 30 s, the Frankfurt school’s critical view began to change, when the western workers’ movement is in the low period, the rapid rise of totalitarian fascism in Europe, in this context, the research focus of Frankfurt school theorists is not the proletariat has a strong belief in the revolution, and turned to the working class study on the ideology, enter the >Manuscript< of the working class from the perspective of sympathy and concern. They try to arouse people’s rational awakening, to break the positivism thinking mode. In the >Dialectics of enlightenment<, Horkheimer and Adorno pointed out that since the enlightenment, the rationality of human has made some achievements, but at the same time, the fall of human rational positivism thinking mode, in the modern industrial society, human rational thinking and reflection, in order to become a slave, became the tool, the rational is not in service to the people, but as for the interests of human beings means rational behind is a trading power for money, is a drama, is a kind of social landscape. Reason has lost the meaning of striving for the freedom of human beings, not loyal servant, but the ruler of mankind. In this regard, the Frankfurt school theorists in the study of the advanced culture of the industrial society, popular culture and other issues, they are around the study of the issue of rationality. They criticize the whole ideology by criticizing the capitalist industrial culture. Critique of capitalist ideology in schools in Frankfurt, we can understand the >Manuscript< of national economists criticism, Marx criticized the principle of economic rationality, followed by national economists whether science, whether real, whether conforms to the interests of workers. The Frankfurt school theorists of this so-called principle of economic rationality, a deep thinking, reveals the capitalism behind the economic rationality and human rights classification is covered by personal economic interests and personal problems. From the perspective of the Frankfurt school, the author explores the rational understanding of the rational meaning behind the rational principle of capitalist economy. Thus, study on the rational problems become a research path of Frankfurt School theorists new. In order to study the problem of rationality, Marcuse and Fromm analyze the theory of alienation in the manuscript, to explore what is human rationality? How can human beings remain rational? They conducted in-depth of human nature, and absorb the >Manuscript< theory of alienation, the scope of the study but not limited to product of labor alienation >Manuscripts< involved, but the alienation view to expand industrial culture and other human life field, reveals the real life. There are many aspects of alienation. Marcuse’s research on the alienation of labor in the manuscript, the return to the reality of the work, pointed out that the human labor attributes do not belong to their own reasons, what is lost in the end? They believe that the separation of labor and human nature is rooted in the loss of individual freedom. In addition, they regard Marx’s research on the relationship between man and labor as a reflection of the rational reflexivity. Marcuse, Marx and Fromm that they like, standing in such a rational perspective, they are rational foundation of respect for human values, emphasizing the initiative and freedom of personality thinking and caring life and living conditions, thus their common people into the humanitarian perspective. Marcuse and Fromm tried to arouse people’s new understanding of the nature of human beings in the perspective of humanism, to arouse people’s conscience, to construct ethical values, and to restrict people’s activities. They pay close attention to the real life and criticize the problems in real life. In real life, they investigate and analyze the development of individual freedom. Through the investigation of the degree of freedom of personality in real life, we can judge whether the rationality of the human being is reasonable, whether it is free or not. Schmidt inherited the new topic proposed by Marcuse and Fromm. In his book >the concept of nature< by the author of the book, the author holds that the understanding of the problem of real life by human beings is the study of the relationship between man and nature in the book of the nature of the book by the author of the book, which is based on the concept of nature by the author of the book, by the author of this thesis. In this case, the author of the thesis is a study of the relationship between man and nature in the book of nature of the book. Schmidt inherited the understanding of the relationship between man and nature, and on this basis, the practice is to connect the relationship between man and nature of the intermediary bridge. However, Schmidt did not pay too much attention to people’s practical activities that focus on reality not just practice, the most important is the >perceptual ideas manuscript< in Schmidt, the >Manuscript< in the perceptual thinking and reality activities together, that emotional reality is the human activities to seek truth standard, Schmidt the emotional problems with real life, pay close attention to people’s emotions and feelings. From this we can see that Schmidt is also involved in the humanitarian perspective of Marcuse. Therefore, Schmidt’s perceptual activities, and finally into the humanitarian perspective. In the study of the Frankfurt school, the study of sensibility and emotion is incorporated into the study of aesthetics. Through people’s understanding of the beauty of things, to analyze personal emotions and other issues. He pursues the root of the emotion, and excavate the emotional thought contained in the aesthetic thought. Wilmer’s aesthetic thought and aesthetic thought of >Manuscript<, >Manuscript< pointed out that >labor produce beauty< Marx believes that the source of human aesthetic thoughts on human labor in the labor process, people through the five senses, the understanding of the United States, Marx stressed that the relationship between the individual and the people on the understanding of differences of aesthetics everyone, the perception of beauty is different. Wilmer emphasized the popularity of aesthetic thought, and thought that the unity of people’s aesthetic thought is the unity of aesthetics after the collision between people. From this, the unified aesthetic standard is constructed. It can be seen that the aesthetics of silence is a process of negation and criticism. The way of Wilmer’s pursuit of reason is actually a way of criticizing and criticizing. He tries to unify the perceptual thought and reason contained in the aesthetic thought, and hopes to seek the freedom of human beings in sensibility. Although he has standardized the aesthetic thought into annotation, positivism and unification, he tried to break the limitation of positivism in the study of rationality, but it was in the visual field of sensibility. [Author’s translation]

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Metadaten
Author:Tengwen Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2017
Release Date:2019/03/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Zhang_Tengwen_2017
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):