Escapism in Kurt Vonnegut’s >Slaughterhouse-five<[库尔特•冯内古特《五号屠场》中的逃避主义 ], Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei, China 2017 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 库尔特•冯内古特是第二次世界大战后美国最多产和最受欢迎的作家之一。《五号屠场》是冯内古特最著名的一部小说,被广泛地认为是一部典型的黑色幽默小说,同时也是一部后现代主义杰作。本文采用弗洛姆的>逃避自由<学说和萨特的存在主义理论分析《五号屠场》中以主人公毕利为主的逃避方式以及逃避本质,从而阐释作者冯内古特的逃避主义观,即逃避不能改变人的困境,不能抹去战争给人类带来的心灵创伤,更不可能阻止战争的发生。只有以积极的心态直面残酷的现实,才是当今人类最好的选择。全文共分为四章。第一章主要分析小说主人公毕利对>他者<的逃避。萨特认为,如果和他人的关系变得扭曲,则>他人<就是地狱。德兵、战友甚至是家人,对毕利来说都是>地狱<,在德兵和以欺负毕利为乐的战友面前,毕利一再忍让、逆来顺受,在妻子面前,沉默寡言、漠不关心,甚至不愿面对自己的母亲,因为她给了他生命,而他只想放弃自己的生命。毕利不愿意通过自己的努力改变与他人的关系,他的行为代表了战后世界人们的人性冷漠与人际关系的异化。第二章主要分析毕利对事实的逃避。在小说中,毕利幻想自己被外星人抓去,并深受外星人价值观的影响。外星人认为时间没有先后顺序,死亡、战争等令人产生负面情绪的事情,仅仅是无数生命时刻中的其中某个时刻,人们应该对此>漠然以对<,仅仅关注生命中的美好时刻。这种种想象其实是毕利不愿面对事实,为逃避内心痛苦的一种自我欺骗,是萨特存在主义理论中的>自欺<行为。第三章分析小说中不同人物的>逃避自由<现象及其原因所在。弗洛姆认为,>逃避自由<有三种方式:极权主义、攻击与破坏以及顺势与趋同。这三种方式在小说中毕利、韦锐以及拉杂罗等不同人物身上均有体现。无论哪种方式,都是为了逃避孤独与无力的生存状态。第四章分析小说中作者的>介入<,作者在小说中通过元小说的方式透露出自己创作此小说的意图,表达了其勇敢回首残酷的战争记忆、愿意为世人担起责任的决心。通过《五号屠场》中的讽刺,作者表明了自己对待战争以及战后荒谬世界的观点——为自己更要对整个社会和人类担起责任,直面现实。
  • Kurt Vonnegut (1922-2007) is one of the most prolific and popular American writers after World War Ⅱ. >Slaughterhouse-Five< (1969) is the most famous novel written by Vonnegut, which is widely regarded as a representative novel of black humor and also a postmodern masterpiece. On the basis of Sartre’s existentialism theory and Fromm’s theory of escaping from freedom, this thesis makes an in-depth analysis of the methods and essence of character’s escaping performances. This thesis is divided into four chapters.– The first chapter analyzes the protagonist Billy’s escaping from >the other<. According to Sartre, once the relationship with others is abnormal, then the other is >hell<. The Germans, the comrades and even family members are all Billy’s hell. Billy is unwilling to face up to the relations but his escaping cannot change his situations.– Chapter Two analyzes Billy’s escaping from truth. Billy imagines himself being captured to another planet and refuses to accept the truth of his real life. His behavior is a typical case of Sartre’s concept of >bad faith< (self-deception).– Chapter Three probes into the manifestation of characters’ escape from freedom. According to Fromm, escape from freedom dues to loneliness and helplessness deep inside one’s heart.– Chapter Four illustrates Vonnegut’s ideas towards the character’s escape phenomena—There is no place to escape to. Vonnegut bears the responsibility to advocates courage of facing the absurd world. [Author’s translation]

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Metadaten
Author:Qianyun Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2017
Release Date:2019/03/04
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Zhang_Qianyun_2017
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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