Research on the Faith Education of Chinese Contemporary College Students 当代中国大学生信仰教育问题研究, Doctoral dissertation, Ideological and Political Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China 2016.

  • 信仰是个永恒的话题,也是个深奥的命题。因为信仰的存在,人与动物才有了最为本质的区别。学界对信仰的研究成果非常多,但对于信仰重要程度的认识仍旧不足,所谓>正本清源<,>本<尚未正,>源<尚未清,对于信仰教育的研究也就凸显出诸多问题。在这种境况下,一味要求当代大学生匡正信仰,将马克思主义信仰内化于心、外化于形的要求就略显牵强。鉴于此,非常有必要对当代大学生信仰教育作一系统研究。通过对国内外学术界在相关问题上的梳理和研究发现,就当代大学生信仰教育而言,研究成果中存在一些不足之处。一是对于信仰元理论的研究力度尚弱;二是对大学生群体,尤其是当前的>90后<大学生信仰状况的调查研究不够;三是研究方法上,实证研究方兴未艾,但尚未出现有深度、有权威的代表性调研成果;四是问题意识不足,解决现有问题的方法捉襟见肘。基于此,非常有必要在学界理论研究存在不足的地方和尚未涉足的地方,通过实证研究方法、比较研究方法、文献研读法、跨学科分析法以及逻辑与历史相结合的方法,结合不同学科的理论分析工具如马克思主义的实践论、全球化理论、滕尼斯的共同体理论、贝塔朗菲的系统论、曼海姆的意识形态理论、弗洛姆的逃避自由理论、席勒的美学思想、费孝通的>差序格局<理论等,对大学生信仰教育进行全面地、系统地分析,力求实现在研究视角、研究内容、研究结论等几个方面的创新。概念是研究和认知的基础,也是研究的出发点。对信仰本质的把握是当代大学生信仰教育研究的逻辑起点。通过对比信仰与理想、信仰与信念、信仰与科学、信仰与宗教等几组相近的概念,可以发现,信仰是一种人类特有的心理与精神现象,是人类对某种人生观、世界观、价值观的信奉和遵循。它支配着其它所有的意识形态,是人的信念中最为稳定、最为持久的部分。从特征上来看,信仰是人的内在需求和满足,体现了人们对人生价值目标永恒的追寻,它是与人类的精神、意志、情感三者相结合的产物,是人不断进步的精神动力和力量之源。在此基础上,笔者认为,信仰教育则是一定的阶级、社会、集团把其所确立和遵奉的信仰通过教育的方式影响受众,将其确立为受教育者信仰的某种精神实践活动。在对信仰及信仰教育本质认识的基础上,窥探当代大学生的信仰状态以及大学生信仰教育的重要意义是研究当代大学生信仰教育的逻辑深入。当代大学生信仰教育的重大意义可以从国家层面、社会层面、学校层面和个人层面来认识。主要体现为,国家层面上,它是坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的政治保证;社会层面上,它是促进社会公平正义的现实需要;学校层面上,它是实现立德树人的内在要求;个人层面上,它是保障个人全面发展的必然选择。鉴于大学生信仰教育具有如此重大的现实意义,必须从历史的高度对其进行一番梳理,从大学生信仰教育实践的历史进程中总结经验教训,为我所用,也为当前大学生信仰教育提供学理和实践基础。当代大学生信仰教育从新中国的成立至今,经历了各具特色的四个阶段,即1949年至1956年、1956年至1978年、1978年至今。在这三个历史阶段中,我国大学生信仰教育的实践活动,既取得了巨大的成绩,得到许多成功的经验,也存在一定的不足,形成一些失败的教训。成功的经验昭示我们,科学的理论体系是开展信仰教育的逻辑前提,正确的政治方向是开展信仰教育的根本保障,健全的教育体制是开展信仰教育的关键所在,榜样的示范效应是开展信仰教育的有效途径,形成合力是开展信仰教育的内在诉求,实践导向是开展信仰教育的核心要求。失败的教训启发我们,在当代大学生信仰教育中,必须革新二元导向,倡导多元理念;提倡因材施教,善于因势利导;正视灌输教育,探寻灵活方法;营造良好氛围,重视人才培养;直面网络平台,强化意识形态。只有从历史中借鉴经验,吸取教训,才能够使当前大学生信仰教育取得一定的成效。当前大学生信仰教育是由学生和教师共同发力的实践活动。费孝通先生曾经提出中国人际关系的组成是一种>差序格局<的形态,这一观点为我们研究当前大学生信仰教育中学生与教师的关系提供了有益的启发。在当前大学生信仰教育中,大学生就是抛入水中的石头,是动力源和中心,一切信仰教育必须围绕着大学生而展开。在这个中心的周围,形成了层层推出的波纹圈,离大学生区域最近的圈,即核心区域圈,是高校思想政治理论课教师,他们对大学生信仰教育起到最为重要的作用,是>差序格局<中对人们人际关系影响最大的人群。其次,次级区域圈则是高校辅导员,他们是大学生信仰教育的中坚力量,最外围的区域圈则是辐射圈,即除了思想政治理论课教师和辅导员之外的其余高校教师。虽然这些教师在大学生信仰教育中并未起到最直接的作用,但他们的存在,却会起到潜移默化的作用和风尚引导的作用,所以并非可有可无的存在力量。当代大学生与这三层区域圈并非各自独立,而是受到不同要素的影响,最为重要的是环境和文化氛围。优化环境,创造良好的信仰文化氛围,是当代大学生信仰教育取得成功的基本保障。当代大学生信仰教育教育些什么?这就涉及到当代大学生信仰教育的内容体系。教育的内容体系从来不是漫无目的的,也不会是平行发展的,它必然要围绕某个核心发散出去,从而形成了信仰教育的核心内容、重点内容。同样,信仰教育需要有自己的精神内核,它不能与宗教信仰教育等同。信仰教育还需要有自己的教育目标和最终归宿,即信仰教育的落脚点。本文认为,树立科学的马克思主义信仰观是当代大学生信仰教育深入推进的核心所在,是信仰教育内容的核心;中国特色社会主义共同理想则是当代大学生信仰教育的重点内容;以爱国主义为核心的民族精神和以改革创新为核心的时代精神是当代大学生信仰教育的精神内核;最后,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观是当代大学生信仰教育的根本落脚点。建构当代中国大学生信仰教育的内容体系的目的在于,让信仰教育有所依托,遵循一个基本的标准,达成一些共识,也让信仰教育的客体在学习中有针对性,不至于不知所学而无法学习。如何让当代大学生在信仰教育中能够更好地习得信仰教育的上述内容呢?需要从三个方面展开,第一,要拓宽大学生信仰教育的途径,除了传统的教育之外,还要注重通过网络、媒体等平台,同时从中国传统文化中借鉴和吸收优秀因子,打造学校、家庭和社会三位一体的信仰教育模式,从而让科学信仰教育的理论渗透力不断强化。第二,创新大学生信仰教育的方法,通过案例比照、情景设置、心灵触动教育、师生互动咨询、大学生自我教育等方法,引导当代大学生树立科学的信仰观。第三,完善大学生信仰教育的机制,从制度的高度为当代大学生信仰教育提供有力支持和制度保障,实现大学生信仰教育的制度化、科学化,从而达到信仰教育理论与实践的知行合一。作为总结和展望,需要强调指出,当代大学生信仰教育研究中存在两种值得注意的不良倾向:一是大学生信仰选择的多元化、世俗化和庸俗化倾向,二是去马克思主义信仰化倾向。这两种倾向对于当代大学生信仰教育而言,无疑具有极大的负面影响,需要在理论研究和实践中给予足够的重视。作为尝试性的解决之道,可以通过重塑当代大学生马克思主义信仰观、顺应多元化的信仰教育发展规律,建立多层次的信仰教育体系、不断创新信仰教育的方式和内容,以扶正大学生信仰中出现的不良倾向,让马克思主义信仰进入到大学生思想和灵魂的深处,坚定当代大学生的科学信仰观,树立当代大学生对中国特色社会主义的道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,成为合格的马克思主义继承者和接班人。show moreshow less
  • As an eternal and profound topic, faith serves as the basic and essential element to distinguishAs an eternal and profound topic, faith serves as the basic and essential element to distinguish human beings with other animals. Although the academia has witnessed a fruitful of researches of faith education, the recognition of the importance of faith remains still insufficient. It is a lack of clarification and definition of faith that causes many problems to occur. Such being the case, the requirements for contemporary college students to rectify their faith system to believe in Marxism and implement it are seemingly unpractical. That is why it is necessary that a systemic research on the faith education for contemporary college students be carried out. A summary of the researches on faith and faith education conducted by domestic and overseas scholars demonstrates that there are some demerits related to the findings of faith education for contemporary college students. Firstly, study of meta-faith concepts is inadequate. Secondly, there lacks abundant surveys on the faith conditions of the group of students born in 1990s. Thirdly, as far as the research methodology is concerned, empirical research method is popular, yet there has not seen insightful and authoritative outcomes as expected. Fourthly, the ability to detect problems is not so strong, let alone the solutions to address those problems. Therefore, there exists the necessity to probe into the uncultivated land and the areas where more profound academic studies are needed by taking such an approach as integrating empirical method, comparative method, literature review method, interdisciplinary analysis method as well as the combinative method of history and logic and exploiting theoretical analysis instruments such as Marxism’s Theory of Practice, the Globalization Theory, the Community Theory of Ferdinand Tönnies, the System Theory of Bertalanffy, the Ideology Theory of Mannheim, Fromm’s Theory of Escaping from Freedom, the Aesthetic Thoughts of Schiller, or Fei Xiaotong’s Differential Mode of Association. By so doing, a comprehensive and systematical analysis of the faith education for college students will be achieved, so will progress be made on the research starting point, progress and conclusion. In the same way that concept is the cognitive basis and starting point for research, the logical and cognitive foundation for the research of faith education for current college students lies in a comprehensive understanding of the concept of >faith<. After comparing the paired concepts of faith and ideal, faith and belief, faith and science, faith and religion etc,, it is found that faith belongs to the kind of psychological and spiritual phenomenon that only human beings boast and that it represents the firm faith and unswerving observance for certain outlook on world, life philosophy and value. As the most stable and long-lasting element in what people think and believe, faith manages and controls all the other ideologies. Faith stands for the satisfaction of an individual’s internal need and it signalizes the pursuit of his or her life values. Faith, as the combination of human spirit, will and emotion, serves as the engine and source of mankind’s evolution. Therefore, this dissertation holds that faith is a kind of spiritual activity that certain society, group or class of people impose the impact of what they believe and observe upon others through faith education. Based on the recognition of the nature of faith and faith education, it then comes to the deeper sense of studying faith education for college students, i.e., probing into the status of students’ faith and, more importantly, the significance of faith education for college students. The significance can be realized from national, social, college and personal dimensions. At the national level, faith education performs as the safeguard for upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. At the social level, it is regarded the need for promoting social fairness and justice. At the level of the college, faith education represents the demand for optimizing morals and cultivating talents. Besides, in consideration of the great significance of faith education and its practices, the history of faith education must be made clear and lessons and experience should be drawn from the practices of faith education, so as to apply the theoretical and practical guidance to today’s faith education for each individual student. Considering the history of faith education, there are three phases ever since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, namely, the Socialist Transformation Period (from 1949 to 1956), the Socialist Construction Period (from 1956 to 1978) and the Reform and Opening up Period (from 1978 up to now). Over the three periods, the practices of China’s faith education has acquired great achievements as well as witnessed some lessons and thus accumulating experience for us followers to exploit. The success of it reveals that scientific and comprehensive theories lay the logical foundation, right political orientation serves as the basis, integrative cooperation of all forces forms the primary requirement and practice-driven thought is the key demand for faith education. While, the lessons of it enlightens people to turn binary orientation into multiple one, to teach students in accordance with their personal characteristics, to let shine students’ strengths and avoid their weaknesses, to rectify the spoon-fed way of education but resort to flexible educational means, to formulate benign educational atmosphere and emphasize personality education, to take advantage of the Internet and to enhance students’ ideological realization in today’s faith education. Only by drawing experience and learning lessons from the historical practices, can people hope to make more progress of the contemporary faith education. Contemporary faith education for college students represents such a kind of practice that requires the integrative efforts of both students and teachers. Mr. Fei Xiaotong, the famous sociologist in China, proposed that there were a >differential mode of association< in China’s human relations network, one mode that reflects that social relations possess a self-centered quality just like a stone thrown into the lake with circles spreading out from the center, which inspires us positively in terms of the study of the relations between students and teachers within the current faith education system. That is, college students are the engines that should be prioritized and centered. Just as the stone thrown in the lake is surrounded by circles of ripples, in the faith education system there are also circles, among the primary circle, the closest one to the center, is constructed by college teachers of ideological and political courses who have the most significant impact on faith education for college students; the secondary circle which is formed by universities’ counselors who also imposes important impact; and the radiation circle, more distant from the center, which is made up by all other faculty members in universities and colleges. Although teachers in the radiation circle may not have direct influence upon faith education for college students, they do influence college students in their formulation and practices of faiths and thus making themselves indispensable in the faith education system. Contemporary college students and the three circles are interrelated; moreover, they are impacted also by the external environment and cultural atmosphere. Therefore, to ensure that faith education in our era achieves its expected outcomes, it is also important to optimize the educational environment as well as cultivate benign cultural atmosphere. Then, what should be included in the process of faith education for current college students? It is all about the content system of faith education. Neither is the content system aimless nor is it developing concurrently; the system is radioactive like circles of ripples, with the order of importance descending from the center, and thus formulating the core and key content. Faith education also has its own spiritual content, different from the education of religion. Besides, faith education boasts educational objectives and ends. This dissertation believes that the core content of faith education for college students is the establishment of Marxism Faith View; the key content is the common ideal of socialism; the spiritual content is the socialist’s value system, say, the Chinese’ national spirit (with patriotism being the core) and time spirit (with reform and innovation being the core); and that the end is the cultivation and implementation of socialist’s core value. The aim of constructing the content system lies in that there is something to be resorted to by faith education, some standard to be followed and common consensus to be reached. It also lies in that the objects of faith education, namely, the students, have an orientation so that they can learn about faith from many aspects. Then, how can college students acquire the above mentioned content in the process of faith education? Firstly, the channels for faith education should be multiplied to incorporate not only traditional education but also some new channels like the Internet or other emerging media. By introducing the mode that allows the society, college and family to impose some impacts, the theoretical saturation of faith education will be increasingly strengthened for college students. Secondly, the methods for faith education should be innovated by means of self-learning of college students, mentors’ guidance, moral affective instruction or psychological consultation etc. so that students can implant Marxism into themselves. Thirdly, the mechanism of scientific faith education system should be optimized via strong institutional guarantee so that college students can receive scientific and systemized faith education and can further their realization and practice of scientific faith standing at the heart of socialist’s core values. In a nutshell, there are some negative trends in the studies of faith education for college students and are also recommended solutions to address the negative trends. In terms of the negative trends, one is the tendency of diversification, secularization and vulgarization, the other is the tendency of exclusive faith in Marxism. Since the two trends are extremely harmful for the faith education for college students in our era, emphasis should be allotted to theoretical and practical researches. Then, this dissertation proposes the following recommendations. Firstly, the Marxism faith view should be renewed; secondly, the diversification of faith education should be realized; thirdly, the multi-layer system of faith education should be set up; fourthly, the methods and content of faith education should be constantly innovated. By so doing, the negative trends will be alleviated and rectified. What’s more, the Marxism faith will be implanted into the heart of college students; scientific faith view, formulated; and confidence in the Chinese Path, the Chinese Theory, the Chinese System, the Chinese Culture, firmly established. As a result, contemporary college students will be the qualified followers of Marxism and excellent successors for socialist’s cause. [Author’s translation]show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Huawei Zhao
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2016
Release Date:2017/11/20
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Zhao_Huawei_2016
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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