Alienation and Struggle for Salvation in >Darkness Visible<《黑暗昭昭》中的异化与拯救, Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China 2016 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 威廉•戈尔丁(1911-1993)是英国二十世纪具有重要影响力的作家,他的十余部作品获奖甚多,曾于1980年和1983年分别获得英国布克小说奖和诺贝尔文学奖,因此他的作品大受批评界关注。《黑暗昭昭》完成于1979年,是戈尔丁十年休眠期后发表的重要作品,并获得了英国布莱克纪念奖。尽管戈尔丁的作品较多,但国内外学者大多仍将注意力集中在《蝇王》这一部作品上,自身分量几乎与《蝇王》相当,形式却比《蝇王》复杂得多的《黑暗昭昭》得到的关注与研究则要比前者少得多。国内外学者对《黑暗昭昭》的研究也多围绕象征主义、二元对立、写作技巧等展开,集中在人性善恶和宗教主题上,而《黑暗昭昭》中的生存、心理异化状态以及异化救赎努力,目前还没有文章进行系统的解读。《黑暗昭昭》展现了二战之后英国小镇的人们,在罪恶与恐怖的余波之中变得疏离和异化,这种生存和心理体验恰好与弗洛姆的异化理论契合。弗洛姆认为异化是一种病态的心理体验,并将其作为描述当代西方人和社会病态的中心术语。他认为不健康的社会将加剧人的无力感,在爱与信仰的缺失下,人们为了生存屈从外界权力从而放弃自我,在病态人格中沉沦,继而导致自我异化。深陷于异化的人们,也开始试图挣扎着寻找获得拯救的途径。小说中的两大主人公麦蒂与苏菲通过不同的选择,走向了全然不同的归宿。而对于人类异化的拷问,不同的学者给出了不同的解决办法,萨特主张人们面对世界的荒诞和人的异化应该自由选择,并为其承担责任,弗洛姆希望用爱与宽容来消除人性异化,克尔凯郭尔则认为只有通过宗教才能获得最终的拯救。当苏菲带着恶意做着无谓的挣扎并在异化中沉沦时,麦蒂选择通过贴近自然,通过爱与宗教获得救赎,并帮助他人获得拯救。依托弗洛姆的人本主义思想和萨特与克尔凯郭尔的存在主义思想,本文分析了小说中人的异化与拯救。首先阐明的是人与外部世界的异化,这一部分包括人与自然的异化以及社会对人的异化。自然在人类发动的战争与工业文明下受到破坏,同时也对人类进行着报复,人与自然的关系并不和谐;战争不仅对自然造成破坏,同时也给人的生存带来不可磨灭的影响,而大众媒体、工业文明与商品经济的盛行以及学校与监狱等社会机构的冷漠都使人的异化进一步加剧。其次论文分析了人与自我的异化以及人际间的异化。人们在爱与信仰的缺失下,普遍产生一种自我认同的焦虑,并在自身的病态性格中沉沦,走向与自我的异化;亲人、恋人、朋友甚至不同族群之间的关系也深深地打上了异化的烙印,人们的情感中充满着愤怒、冷漠、孤绝与混乱,异化中的人们亟待拯救。论文最后解读两大主人公苏菲与麦蒂为了逃离异化做出的挣扎。苏菲选择不停地作恶以摆脱孤绝之感,却以失败告终,并在异化中沉沦,自食其果;麦蒂选择从自然中汲取力量,通过成熟的爱与宗教启示拯救他人,并使自我得到救赎。麦蒂的拯救意味着现代社会中的人们依然有摆脱异化的希望,因此对文本中异化与拯救的解读也有了现实意义。show moreshow less
  • William Golding (1911-1993) is an important British writer of the twentieth century, whose works wonWilliam Golding (1911-1993) is an important British writer of the twentieth century, whose works won him a lot of prizes. He was rewarded the Booker Prize of Britain in 1980 and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1983. His works are greatly favored by critics. >Darkness Visible< published in 1979 is Golding’s important novel after his 10-year silence and won The James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Although Golding has many works, most of domestic and foreign scholars still focus on Lord of the Flies. Compared to >Lord of the Flies<, >Darkness Visible< is also important and more complicated in form but receives less attention. Domestic and foreign researches about >Darkness Visible< mostly concentrate on symbolism, binary oppositions, writing skills or theme of good and evil or theology. So far no paper has systematically interpret existential and mental alienation in characters and their struggle for salvation in >Darkness Visible<.– >Darkness Visible< reveals British people’s absurdity and alienation in the crime and terror after World War Ⅱ. Characters’ alienation experience of existence and morbid psychology correspond to Fromm’s theory. Fromm thinks that alienation is a kind of morbid psychological experience and considers it as central category in contemporary social pathology. He believes that individuals’ sense of powerlessness will be aggravated in insane society. Lack of love and faith, man succumbs himself to the outside world and degenerates himself in order to survive, falling into pathological personality, which leads to self-alienation. People who are trapped in alienation have to struggle for salvation. The two protagonists Matty and Sophy get different destinies through different choices. For man’s alienation, different scholars give different solutions. Jean Paul Sartre insists that man in the absurd world and alienation has the freedom to make his own choice and has to be responsible for it. Erich Fromm believes that alienation can be eliminated by love and tolerance; Kierkegaard thinks that leap of faith and religion is the only way to be saved. Sophie makes meaningless and useless struggle in evil and finally sinks deeply into alienation. Matty chooses to achieve recuperation in nature, saving himself and others through love and religion. Based on the Fromm’s humanistic theory and existentialism of Sartre and Kierkegaard, this thesis analyzes people’s alienation and their struggle for salvation.– Firstly, it analyzes the alienation between man and the outside world, which includes estrangement from nature and alienation from society. Nature is damaged by human under the war and industrialization, but revenges on human beings in return. The relationship between man and nature is not harmonious. The war not only causes damage to nature, but also has an indelible impact on the survival of people. The spread of mass media, prevalence of industrial civilization, development of production and consumption along with indifference of social institutions such as schools and prisons exacerbate people’s sense of alienation.– Then it follows analysis of man’s alienation within and interpersonal alienation. Lacking of love and faith, people in general have an anxiety of self-identity, and fall into self-alienation with insane personalities. The relationships between family, friends, lovers and races are also deeply alienated. Filled with anger, apathy, loneliness and confusion, people in alienation need to be saved urgently.– Lastly, the thesis demonstrates the two protagonists Matty and Sophy’s struggle for salvation in the novel. Sophy chooses to perform evil to get rid of the sense of loneliness, but fails to escape from alienation. She has to be responsible for the result. Matty chooses to heal himself in nature, saving others and achieve self-salvation through mature love and religion. Matty’s salvation indicates that people in modern society still have the possibility of escaping from alienation.– As a result, the interpretation of alienation and salvation in this thesis has practical significance. [Author’s translation]show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Yuqin Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Language:Chinese
Year of first Publication:2016
Release Date:2017/11/20
Format:no download and copy possible
IdNo:Zhang_Yuqin_2016
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
Licence (German):