The phenomena of manipulation of the economy by the incumbent for electoral
purpose are called Political Business Cycles (PBC), introduced by Nordhaus (1975). Using
policy control economic instruments, as fiscal and monetary instruments, government may
manipulate the economy to gain electoral advantage by producing growth and decreasing
unemployment before elections.
In addition to increased public expenditures, also the production/supply of certain
publicly provided goods may score improvements. In Albania, production and supply of
electricity (for the time span of our analyzes) was controlled by KESH (Korporata
Energjitike Shqiptare – Albanian Energy Corporation) which is a quasi- monopoly in the
supply of electricity in Albania, and it is publicly run. Throughout the transition, supply of
electricity, due to various technical and economic reasons, has not been stable, and
characterized by systematic interruption for households and businesses users, affecting
their well-being and performance (electricity is a main source of energy for households,
including heating and cooking). Therefore, it seems so that there is an incentive and
rationale for the incumbent to use also the provision of electricity to impress the voters
before elections, beside of the classical instruments of expenditures.
In this paper we analyze consumption, production and import of electricity in Albania.
Our hypothesis is that before elections, electricity consumption may increase above usual
levels, followed by a contraction after elections. In our analysis we use modern standard
econometric approach, used widely for research related to PBC. By ARMA modelling it is
possible to prove if elections can explain changes in electricity production, in addition to
the past history of the variable and the random error term.
Dieser Artikel zeigt, dass eine Subvention der heimischen Kreditzinsen zu einem
Rückgang der Auslandsverschuldung führen kann. Ausgehend von der Mittelwert-
Varianz- und der Erwartungsnutzentheorie wurde ein Modell entwickelt, in dessen
Rahmen der Wirtschaftsakteur sein internationales Kreditportfolio optimiert.
Eine Einbeziehung der Zinsparitätenbedingung war in der Analyse jedoch nicht
zielführend. In den Modellrahmen wird eine staatliche Zinssubvention eingeführt
und ihre theoretische Wirkung auf die Fremdwährungsverschuldung der Haushalte