- Dynamics of Aesthetic Appreciation for Artificial Categories (2011)
- Das Alltagsleben in "westlichen" Ländern ist durch die fortwährenden Veränderungen der Umwelt gekennzeichnet – z. B. durch die Markteinführung neuer, innovativer Produktdesigns. Innovative oder untypische Designs durchbrechen oft die Sehgewohnheiten. Dieser Umstand führt anfänglich häufig zu einer Zurückweisung dieser Designs. Da Menschen jedoch auf neue Erfahrungen adaptieren, z.B. durch die intensive Beschäftigung mit solchen Produkten, haben die Wahrnehmung und damit auch die ästhetische Beurteilung (AEB) eine dynamische Qualität, welche zu Änderungen der AEB führt. In sechs Projekten wurde diese dynamische Qualität der AEB demonstriert, welche als Konstrukt der Variablen Attraktivität, Anregung, Interessantheit, Valenz, Langeweile und Innovativität implementiert wurde. Die Dynamiken der AEB wurden durch zwei Hauptparadigma untersucht: die Repeated Evaluation Technique (RET), welche eine tiefe Elaboration des Stimulusmaterials forciert, und das Adaptationsparadigma, welches die VersuchsteilnehmerInnen massiv innovativen oder untypischen Exemplaren aussetzt. Die Resultate aller sechs Projekte unterstützen die Hypothese, dass neue Erfahrungen Dynamiken der AEB auslösen. Diese Dynamiken werden durch das Priming semantischer Konzepte, das implementierte Stimulus-Set und situationsspezifische Effekte moderiert. Die Resultate der Projekte mit Adaptationsparadigmen unterstützen die Hypothese, dass Adaptation zu der Rekalibrierung der Norm einer Kategorie führt, wie es von dem Norm-Based-Model vorhergesagt wird. In diesem Zusammenhang wurden zwei Moderatorvariablen identifiziert: die Distanz und die Ähnlichkeit der Adaptoren zu dem getesteten Stimuli. Die Resultate demonstrieren die fortwährenden adaptiven Änderungen der AEB aufgrund von neuen Erfahrungen und unterstreichen die adaptive Natur der Wahrnehmung und der Repräsentation von Objekten.
- Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments. Post-Proceedings of the KI'11 Workshop (October 4th, 2011, TU Berlin, Germany) (2011)
- In the post-proceedings of the Workshop "Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments" a selection of research papers is presented where the topic of visibility is addressed in different contexts. Visibility governs information selection in geographic environments as well as in information spaces and in cognition. The users of social media navigate in information spaces and at the same time, as embodied agents, they move in geographic environments. Both activities follow a similar type of information economy in which decisions by individuals or groups require a highly selective filtering to avoid information overload. In this context, visibility refers to the fact that in social processes some actors, topics or places are more salient than others. Formal notions of visibility include the centrality measures from social network analysis or the plethora of web page ranking methods. Recently, comparable approaches have been proposed to analyse activities in geographic environments: Place Rank, for instance, describes the social visibility of urban places based on the temporal sequence of tourist visit patterns. The workshop aimed to bring together researchers from AI, Geographic Information Science, Cognitive Science, and other disciplines who are interested in understanding how the different forms of visibility in information spaces and geographic environments relate to one another and how the results from basic research can be used to improve spatial search engines, geo-recommender systems or location-based social networks.
- The power of liking: Highly sensitive asthetic processing for guiding us through the world (2012)
- Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic perspective (test–retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties, whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations of perceptual input.
- Innovation is Appreciated When We Feel Safe: On the Situational Dependence of the Appreciation of Innovation (2013)
- Appreciation of innovative goods requires the fulfilment of several pre-conditions, e.g., before we can admire an innovative design we must have cognitively elaborated it. In the present study, we focused on situational context as one factor affecting appreciation of innovations. In order to demonstrate that evaluation of innovation for the appreciation of consumer products is sensitive to situational demands we studied the selective activation of fascinating facets versus threatening or even dangerous aspects of innovation. We varied the specific direction of elaboration towards potentially fascinating or dangerous aspects of car designs that differed in their degree of innovativeness. Participants showed specific appreciation for highly innovative designs only if they had elaborated the material on the basis of scales associated with the more fascinating aspects of their stimuli. A repetition after a week revealed that participants recalibrate to the appreciative norms with which they started, but that they showed the same dissociate pattern of results after having elaborated the material again. The findings underline the adaptive function of aesthetically-based evaluations strongly depending on the situational context in which they are evaluated.
- Jump on the innovator's train: cognitive principles for creating appreciation in innovative product designs (2013)
- In everyday life, we find shared preferences for idiosyncratic product features paradigmatically displayed by bestselling gadgets like Apples iPhone’s touch screen, which after gaining acceptance and appreciation are susceptible to being copied by competitors. Psychological research on the phenomenon of shared preferences for innovative design features and the probable benefit of copying them is still lacking. We tested gains of acceptance for imitators through an adaptation paradigm where typicality and liking of potentially innovative features were analysed dynamically. We found significant changes in typicality and liking for imitators being highly similar to the original. These adaptation processes in combination with transfer effects create the specific opportunity for imitators to jump on the innovator’s train by providing similar innovative features and thereby participating in the initial innovator’s success. Importantly, they participate best not by solely copying a specific novel feature, but by additionally generally looking very similar to the innovator.
- A cognitive model for predicting esthetical judgements as similarity to dynamic prototypes (2013)
- We present a framework for cognitive modeling of esthetic decision making based on dynamic prototypes. Starting point of our work is empirical evidence which shows that subjects’ initial ratings of attractiveness of objects can be influenced by adapting them to new, typically more innovative objects. The framework consists of three steps: (1) Estimating an initial prototype from the ratings, (2) adapting the prototype due to the impact of the new objects, and (3) predicting the attractiveness ratings for subsequently presented object by their similarity to the adapted prototype. The framework allows representation of prototypes and objects as feature vectors containing metrical or categorial attributes or as structural representations. Within the framework, a variety of similarity measures and similarity-torating mappings can be explored to gain more precise insight into the cognitive processes underlying esthetical appreciations. We instantiated the framework for a first set of data obtained in a psychological experiment. In this experiment subjects rated the attractiveness of an initial set of chairs which varied in length of the backrest and the saturation of the color. Subjects then were adapted to a new set of chairs with extreme values on both dimensions. Finally, subjects again rated the initial objects. The framework was instantiated with an e-function to model the non-linear effects of variations in length and saturation on the judgements. Although there were only 25 data points per subject, we got satisfying results in predicting the shift of esthetical judgements due to adaptation to novel stimuli.