- Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Psychologie (47)
- Professur für Angewandte Informatik, insbesondere Kognitive Systeme (4)
- Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Informatik in den Kultur-, Geschichts- und Geowissenschaften (2)
- Professur für Allgemeine Psychologie (2)
- Lehrstuhl für Medieninformatik (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (1)
- Rechenzentrum (1)
- Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments. Post-Proceedings of the KI'11 Workshop (October 4th, 2011, TU Berlin, Germany) (2011)
- In the post-proceedings of the Workshop "Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments" a selection of research papers is presented where the topic of visibility is addressed in different contexts. Visibility governs information selection in geographic environments as well as in information spaces and in cognition. The users of social media navigate in information spaces and at the same time, as embodied agents, they move in geographic environments. Both activities follow a similar type of information economy in which decisions by individuals or groups require a highly selective filtering to avoid information overload. In this context, visibility refers to the fact that in social processes some actors, topics or places are more salient than others. Formal notions of visibility include the centrality measures from social network analysis or the plethora of web page ranking methods. Recently, comparable approaches have been proposed to analyse activities in geographic environments: Place Rank, for instance, describes the social visibility of urban places based on the temporal sequence of tourist visit patterns. The workshop aimed to bring together researchers from AI, Geographic Information Science, Cognitive Science, and other disciplines who are interested in understanding how the different forms of visibility in information spaces and geographic environments relate to one another and how the results from basic research can be used to improve spatial search engines, geo-recommender systems or location-based social networks.
- Bartlett's schema theory: The unreplicated "portrait d'homme" series from 1932 (2012)
- In 1932, Frederic Bartlett laid the foundation for the later schema theory. His key assumption of previous knowledge affecting the processing of new stimuli was illustrated in the famous "portrait d'homme" series. Sequenced reproductions of ambiguous stimuli showed progressive object-likeness. As Bartlett pointed out, activation of specific schemata, for instance "the face schema", biases memory retrieval towards such schemata. In five experiments (Experiment 1, n = 53; Experiment 2, n = 177; Experiment 3, n = 36; Experiment 4, n = 6; Experiment 5, n = 2), we tested several factors potentially influencing retrieval biases—for example, by varying the general procedure of reproduction (repeated vs. serial) and by omitting versus providing visual or semantic cues for activating face schemata. Participants inspected face-like stimuli with the caption "portrait of the human" and reproduced them repeatedly under specific conditions. None of the experiments revealed a systematic tendency towards Bartlett's described case, even when the participants were explicitly instructed to draw "a face" like the previously inspected one. In one of the "serial reproduction" experiments, we even obtained contrary effects with decreasing face-likeness over the reproduction generations. A close analysis of the original findings raises questions about the replicability of Bartlett's findings, qualifying the "portrait d'homme" series more or less as an illustrative example of the main idea of reconstructive memory.
- Cognitive fluency : High-level processing dynamics in art appreciation (2010)
- Based on findings that fluency of mental operations is hedonically marked and associated with more favorable evaluations of the processed target (Reber, Schwarz, & Winkielman, 2004a; Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003) we investigated the contribution of such fluency effects for aesthetic appreciation. Using bogus titles that either facilitated or hindered semantic processing of paintings, fluency was investigated for higher-order cognitive operations on the level of meaning assignment. A cross-modal conceptual priming procedure was used, in which semantically related or unrelated titles, or “no-title” letter strings preceded the presentation of paintings with different degrees of visual abstraction. Results were in accordance with a fluency-affect-liking hypothesis. Related titles produced highest appreciation followed by no titles and unrelated titles conditions. This effect was moderated by the degree of abstraction of the paintings, with fluency effects especially prominent for representational paintings. Results indicated that aesthetic appreciation is partly grounded in the processing dynamics of the viewer and that the phenomenal experience of cognitive-fluency is an intrinsic source for the hedonic value of art.
- The neural time course of art perception : An ERP study on the processing of style versus content in art (2011)
- A central prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of art in psychological terms is to investigate the nature of the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes. Building on a study by Augustin, Leder, Hutzler, and Carbon (2008) the current ERP study examined the neural time course of two central aspects of representational art, one of which is closely related to object- and scene perception, the other of which is art-specific: content and style. We adapted a paradigm that has repeatedly been employed in psycholinguistics and that allows one to examine the neural time course of two processes in terms of when sufficient information is available to allow successful classification. Twenty-two participants viewed pictures that systematically varied in style and content and conducted a combined go/nogo dual choice task. The dependent variables of interest were the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP) and the N200 effect. Analyses of both measures support the notion that in the processing of art style follows content, with style-related information being available at around 224ms or between 40 and 94ms later than content-related information. The paradigm used here offers a promising approach to further explore the time course of art perception, thus helping to unravel the
- All is beautiful? Generality vs. specificity of word usage in visual aesthetics (2012)
- A central problem in the literature on psychological aesthetics is a lack of precision in terminology regarding the description and measurement of aesthetic impressions. The current research project approached the problem of terminology empirically, by studying people's word usage to describe aesthetic impressions. For eight different object classes that are relevant in visual aesthetics, including visual art, landscapes, faces and different design classes, we examined which words people use to describe their aesthetic impressions, and which general conceptual dimensions might underlie similarities and differences between the classes. The results show an interplay between generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. In line with results by Jacobsen, Buchta, Kohler, and Schroger (2004) beautiful and ugly seem to be the words with most general relevance, but in addition each object class has its own distinct pattern of relevant terms. Multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis suggest that the most extreme positions in aesthetic word usage for the classes studied are taken by landscapes and geometric shapes and patterns. This research aims to develop a language of aesthetics for the visual modality. Such a common vocabulary should facilitate the development of cross-disciplinary models of aesthetics and create a basis for the construction of standardised aesthetic measures.
- Aesthetic appraisal of product designs: Independent effects of typicality and arousal (2012)
- Theories differ on how typicality and arousal influence aesthetic appraisal and whether these processes together interact or have independent effects on aesthetic appraisal. This research investigates the simultaneous effects of typicality and arousal on aesthetic appraisal for product designs by manipulating both processes separately: typicality by prototype deviation and arousal by colour saturation levels. We demonstrate that typicality has a curvilinear relationship with aesthetic appraisal. Additionally, arousal has a positive linear relationship with aesthetic appraisal of product designs. Moreover, arousal can influence aesthetic appraisal independent from typicality.
- Rigidity rather than age as a limiting factor to appreciate innovative design (2012)
- In this paper, we study to what degree older consumers differ from middle-aged consumers with respect to the appreciation of new product designs. We asked respondents from both age groups to evaluate innovative designs that were shown repeatedly, replicating a regular market situation by using the Repeated Evaluation Technique (RET). The results show that rigidity, but not age influences the speed of appreciation towards new product designs under these circumstances. Our findings indicate that it is a misconception that older consumers are slower in adopting new product innovations per se.
- Face adaptation effects show strong and long-lasting transfer from lab to more ecological contexts (2012)
- A review on recent experiments on figural face aftereffects reveals that adaptation effects in famous faces can last for hours up to days. Such adaptations seem to be highly reliable regarding test–retest designs as well as regarding the generalizability of adaptation across different adaptation routines and adaptations toward different kinds of facial properties. However, in the studies conducted so far, adaptation and the subsequent test phase were carried out in typical laboratory environments. Under these circumstances, it cannot be ruled out that the observed effects are, in fact, episodic learn–test compatibility effects. To test for ecological validity in adaptation effects we used an adaptation paradigm including environmental and social properties that differed between adaptation and test phase. With matched samples (n1 = n2 = 54) we found no main effects of experimental setting compatibility resulting from varying where the tests where conducted (environmental condition) nor any interaction with effects of stimulus compatibility resulting from varying stimulus similarity between adaptation and test phase using the same picture, different pictures of the same person, or different persons (transfer). This indicates that these adaptation effects are not artificial or merely lab-biased effects. Adaptation to face stimuli may document representational adaptations and tuning mechanisms that integrate new visual input in a very fast, reliable, and sustainable way.
- The Mere Exposure effect in the domain of haptics (2012)
- Background: Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels (simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of ‘‘Need for Touch’’ data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE. Conclusions/Significance: This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.
- Judging body-weight from faces: The height-weight illusion (2012)
- Abstract. Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (eg width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height ^ weight illusion.