- Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Psychologie (89)
- Professur für Angewandte Informatik, insbesondere Kognitive Systeme (6)
- Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Informatik in den Kultur-, Geschichts- und Geowissenschaften (2)
- Professur für Allgemeine Psychologie (2)
- Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Marketing (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Medieninformatik (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (1)
- Rechenzentrum (1)
- Bartlett's schema theory: The unreplicated "portrait d'homme" series from 1932 (2012)
- In 1932, Frederic Bartlett laid the foundation for the later schema theory. His key assumption of previous knowledge affecting the processing of new stimuli was illustrated in the famous "portrait d'homme" series. Sequenced reproductions of ambiguous stimuli showed progressive object-likeness. As Bartlett pointed out, activation of specific schemata, for instance "the face schema", biases memory retrieval towards such schemata. In five experiments (Experiment 1, n = 53; Experiment 2, n = 177; Experiment 3, n = 36; Experiment 4, n = 6; Experiment 5, n = 2), we tested several factors potentially influencing retrieval biases—for example, by varying the general procedure of reproduction (repeated vs. serial) and by omitting versus providing visual or semantic cues for activating face schemata. Participants inspected face-like stimuli with the caption "portrait of the human" and reproduced them repeatedly under specific conditions. None of the experiments revealed a systematic tendency towards Bartlett's described case, even when the participants were explicitly instructed to draw "a face" like the previously inspected one. In one of the "serial reproduction" experiments, we even obtained contrary effects with decreasing face-likeness over the reproduction generations. A close analysis of the original findings raises questions about the replicability of Bartlett's findings, qualifying the "portrait d'homme" series more or less as an illustrative example of the main idea of reconstructive memory.
- Cognitive fluency : High-level processing dynamics in art appreciation (2010)
- Based on findings that fluency of mental operations is hedonically marked and associated with more favorable evaluations of the processed target (Reber, Schwarz, & Winkielman, 2004a; Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003) we investigated the contribution of such fluency effects for aesthetic appreciation. Using bogus titles that either facilitated or hindered semantic processing of paintings, fluency was investigated for higher-order cognitive operations on the level of meaning assignment. A cross-modal conceptual priming procedure was used, in which semantically related or unrelated titles, or “no-title” letter strings preceded the presentation of paintings with different degrees of visual abstraction. Results were in accordance with a fluency-affect-liking hypothesis. Related titles produced highest appreciation followed by no titles and unrelated titles conditions. This effect was moderated by the degree of abstraction of the paintings, with fluency effects especially prominent for representational paintings. Results indicated that aesthetic appreciation is partly grounded in the processing dynamics of the viewer and that the phenomenal experience of cognitive-fluency is an intrinsic source for the hedonic value of art.
- All is beautiful? Generality vs. specificity of word usage in visual aesthetics (2012)
- A central problem in the literature on psychological aesthetics is a lack of precision in terminology regarding the description and measurement of aesthetic impressions. The current research project approached the problem of terminology empirically, by studying people's word usage to describe aesthetic impressions. For eight different object classes that are relevant in visual aesthetics, including visual art, landscapes, faces and different design classes, we examined which words people use to describe their aesthetic impressions, and which general conceptual dimensions might underlie similarities and differences between the classes. The results show an interplay between generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. In line with results by Jacobsen, Buchta, Kohler, and Schroger (2004) beautiful and ugly seem to be the words with most general relevance, but in addition each object class has its own distinct pattern of relevant terms. Multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis suggest that the most extreme positions in aesthetic word usage for the classes studied are taken by landscapes and geometric shapes and patterns. This research aims to develop a language of aesthetics for the visual modality. Such a common vocabulary should facilitate the development of cross-disciplinary models of aesthetics and create a basis for the construction of standardised aesthetic measures.
- Aesthetic appraisal of product designs: Independent effects of typicality and arousal (2012)
- Theories differ on how typicality and arousal influence aesthetic appraisal and whether these processes together interact or have independent effects on aesthetic appraisal. This research investigates the simultaneous effects of typicality and arousal on aesthetic appraisal for product designs by manipulating both processes separately: typicality by prototype deviation and arousal by colour saturation levels. We demonstrate that typicality has a curvilinear relationship with aesthetic appraisal. Additionally, arousal has a positive linear relationship with aesthetic appraisal of product designs. Moreover, arousal can influence aesthetic appraisal independent from typicality.
- Rigidity rather than age as a limiting factor to appreciate innovative design (2012)
- In this paper, we study to what degree older consumers differ from middle-aged consumers with respect to the appreciation of new product designs. We asked respondents from both age groups to evaluate innovative designs that were shown repeatedly, replicating a regular market situation by using the Repeated Evaluation Technique (RET). The results show that rigidity, but not age influences the speed of appreciation towards new product designs under these circumstances. Our findings indicate that it is a misconception that older consumers are slower in adopting new product innovations per se.
- Face adaptation effects show strong and long-lasting transfer from lab to more ecological contexts (2012)
- A review on recent experiments on figural face aftereffects reveals that adaptation effects in famous faces can last for hours up to days. Such adaptations seem to be highly reliable regarding test–retest designs as well as regarding the generalizability of adaptation across different adaptation routines and adaptations toward different kinds of facial properties. However, in the studies conducted so far, adaptation and the subsequent test phase were carried out in typical laboratory environments. Under these circumstances, it cannot be ruled out that the observed effects are, in fact, episodic learn–test compatibility effects. To test for ecological validity in adaptation effects we used an adaptation paradigm including environmental and social properties that differed between adaptation and test phase. With matched samples (n1 = n2 = 54) we found no main effects of experimental setting compatibility resulting from varying where the tests where conducted (environmental condition) nor any interaction with effects of stimulus compatibility resulting from varying stimulus similarity between adaptation and test phase using the same picture, different pictures of the same person, or different persons (transfer). This indicates that these adaptation effects are not artificial or merely lab-biased effects. Adaptation to face stimuli may document representational adaptations and tuning mechanisms that integrate new visual input in a very fast, reliable, and sustainable way.
- The Mere Exposure effect in the domain of haptics (2012)
- Background: Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels (simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of ‘‘Need for Touch’’ data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE. Conclusions/Significance: This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.
- Judging body-weight from faces: The height-weight illusion (2012)
- Abstract. Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (eg width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height ^ weight illusion.
- Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music (2012)
- Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people’s word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201). Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms.
- The power of liking: Highly sensitive asthetic processing for guiding us through the world (2012)
- Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic perspective (test–retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties, whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations of perceptual input.