Counterfeit trade is amulti-billion dollar industry affecting anever-wider range of goods andmarkets. Despite the
diversity of counterfeit products in terms of complexity, manufacturing techniques, investments in production
facilities, potential dangers or value for the users, and degrees of conflict for the counterfeit producers with the
local authorities, current academic literature still refers to counterfeit producers as one homogeneous group.
Against this background, the present study investigates the existence of strategic groups among counterfeiters
based on an empirical examination of counterfeited products using cluster analysis. The results indicate that
brand owners are confronted with five different groups of counterfeiters: (1) disaggregators, (2) imitators, (3)
fraudsters, (4) desperados, and (5) smugglers. The findings of this study contribute to a more differentiated
understanding of each group's learning and growth strategies and help practitioners to better position their
companies with respect to the counterfeit market.
Dieser Tagungsband dokumentiert Ergebnisse der Herbsttagung des Arbeitskreises Grundschule in der Gesellschaft für Didaktik der Mathematik (GDM) in Tabarz vom 8. bis 10. November 2013 zum Thema „Mathematik vernetzt“. Das Rahmenthema der Tagung „Mathematik vernetzt“ wurde in fünf Hauptvorträgen im Plenum diskutiert. Zusätzlich setzten sich Arbeitsgruppen zu den klassischen Themenfeldern Arithmetik, Geometrie, Sachrechnen und Daten, Zufall & Wahrscheinlichkeit sowie Gruppen zu den Bereichen Kommunikation & Kooperation, Vorschulische Bildung, Lehren & Forschen mit Neuen Medien in der Primarstufe und Lehrerfortbildung intensiv mit aktuellen Forschungs- und Praxisfragen auseinander.
There is ample evidence of deviations between the actual and planned interaction structures between a firm's IT department and business units. Such deviations can hinder senior managers from governing their IT organizations effectively because they do not know how
work really gets done. This paper develops an explanation for why actual structures differ from planned structures. Understanding this phenomenon is indispensable for managers to govern the real organization, to uphold compliance with important standards (e.g., ITIL, COBIT), to decide whether the formal or the actual organization is more effective, and, finally, to identify management actions that support the optimal structure. To develop this understanding, we analyze the interaction structures at the interface between firms' business units and IT units in four rich cases, using data from 56 interviews and 47 questionnaires, and applying qualitative methods and social network analysis, which give us deep insights into planned and actual interaction among employees. We test two different
explanations for deviations of actual from planned interaction structures and find that boundary-spanning theory provides the dominant explanation for such deviations: Inclined to span the business/IT boundary most effectively, the actors involved deviate from planned
structures especially when other structures offer better boundary-spanning potential, which is influenced primarily by cross-domain knowledge. In addition, relationships also play an important role. On the positive side, relationships provide opportunities for such deviations, while on the negative side, a conflict-laden relationship might hinder deviations even if they were advantageous.