Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.
Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) is of vital importance for the daily life of many private and corporate users. However, the majority of all FLOSS initiatives fail, most commonly due to a lack of sustained developers. In contrast to previous research which used an individual centric or a structural perspective, this dissertation combines motivational and relational aspects to build a comprehensive understanding for FLOSS developers' ongoing project commitment. A unified research model is developed by drawing on established theories from organizational and sociological literature, in particular by combining Self-Determination-Theory (SDT) and Social-Identity-Theory (SIT). Both SDT and SIT have been found valuable concepts for staffing decisions in organizations. In addition to the development and evaluation of the research model, this dissertation derives operational strategies for project managers of FLOSS initiatives on how to enhance the retention behavior of their contributor base.
The acquisition of new knowledge is a critical task for software development. IT companies spend considerable resources in the training of their employees to succeed in a continuously changing industry. Depending on the voluntary commitment of their contributors, initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) identified members' learning and their retention as vital. Although contributors' knowledge building has been repeatedly found to facilitate their project continuance, FLOSS projects are lacking operational advices on how to assist their members' learning. Drawing on previous literature which emphasizes project members' social interactions and their practical experiences to build new knowledge, we propose mentoring as a training method for FLOSS projects. Based on organizational experiences, we propose a measure to evaluate mentoring as an appropriate strategy for FLOSS initiatives to facilitate individuals'
learning and to retain their contributors on longitudinal base.
Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we
experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent
in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood
and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the
literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes
of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs
on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design
for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic
perspective (test–retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties,
whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex
and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an
essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations
of perceptual input.
Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little
about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this
problem by studying people’s word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms:
visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe
aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201). Focusing
on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions
of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay
of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all
art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related
words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct
evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example,
experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the
realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for
different art forms.
Abstract. Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve
as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin
colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able
to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor
for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular
challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information
from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We
showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a
lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point.
The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (eg width-to-height ratio) that accompany
changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height ^ weight illusion.
Background: Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive
than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research
on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels
(simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice,
F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure
frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the
stone category. Analysis of ‘‘Need for Touch’’ data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests
different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE.
Conclusions/Significance: This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the
haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the
visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.
Theories differ on how typicality and arousal influence aesthetic appraisal and whether
these processes together interact or have independent effects on aesthetic appraisal.
This research investigates the simultaneous effects of typicality and arousal on aesthetic
appraisal for product designs by manipulating both processes separately: typicality by
prototype deviation and arousal by colour saturation levels. We demonstrate that
typicality has a curvilinear relationship with aesthetic appraisal. Additionally, arousal
has a positive linear relationship with aesthetic appraisal of product designs. Moreover,
arousal can influence aesthetic appraisal independent from typicality.