Investors often influence the strategic decisions of their holdings, such as long-term orientation and investments in intangible assets. Investigating IT capability as a strategic asset, we examine the influence of institutional shareholders' investment horizon and blockholdings on the development of organizational IT capability. We perform a panel data analysis of eleven years of archival data from publicly listed U.S. companies. Our findings show a positive relationship between a firm's ownership structure and the development of its IT capability. In particular, we find that equity owners that remain invested over long periods of time increase firms' likelihood of developing a continuous IT capability. In contrast, investors that can be classified as blockholders do not exert significant influence on their portfolio firms. By linking accounting research on firm ownership with ongoing IS research on IT capability, we provide new insides into the firm-level benefits of long-term oriented institutional investors on IT capability.
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.