In a high altitude region such as the Silvretta Alps (Switzerland/Austria), past and extant settlement activities are known to have had large influences on the alpine flora and vegetation. The Silvretta Massif harbors more than 230 archaeological sites above 2000 m a.s.l. on a total area of 550 km2, from the Mesolithic period to Modern Times, but received little attention in these matters up to recently. The
Fimba Valley within the Silvretta area e with 47 known archaeological sites (6 prehistoric, 21 from the Medieval and/or Modern Times, 20 undated) located over an area of 62 km2 e provides evidence of a broad range of former human presence, as well as peat records allowing the reconstruction of Holocene
climatic change and anthropogenic impact on past vegetation. Here, we present a high resolution, multiproxy
study (including pollen, cryptogam spores, and non-pollen palynomorphs) on a 177-cm-long radiocarbon dated peat core from the Las Gondas Bog in the Fimba Valley (2363 m a.s.l.). Palynological
evidence adds and confirms previous dendrochronological results, revealing extensive high Pinus cembra (Arolla pine) stands around the bog at 10,400 cal BP and between ca. 8600e6700 cal. BP, more than 300 altitudinal meters above today’s timberline, and belonging therefore to the highest population known for
Central Europe. In addition, our palaeoecological results correlate well with the archaeologically known human impact during the Neolithic, Iron Age and Medieval periods. The exploitation of alpine landscape resources (cultivation of cereals in the valleys) and livestock grazing (in the subalpine and alpine areas) has therefore a long tradition going back at least for 6200 years in the Silvretta region.
This research examines the effects of business process management (BPM) and information systems implementations in secondary service processes. Using a case study of BPM and human resources information systems (HRIS) in the recruiting context at a financial service provider it can be shown that BPM, defined as a structured systematic approach to analyze and continually improve a specific process, and HRIS provide positive effects in terms of cost reduction, increased cycle time, customer satisfaction, and improve quality for secondary service processes in organizations. The results contribute to IS research as they illustrate how combined BPM and IS can be implemented in secondary service processes and provide evidence for the positive effects of BPM and HRIS in this type of processes.
Business process standardization (BPS) has recently got into focus of the BPM literature as a methodology to substantially enable efficiency potentials and therefore improve process performance. So far, the BPS literature has exclusively focused on success factors for BPS and relevant capabilities. By contrast, inhibiting factors have not been sufficiently considered, yet, but success factors respectively enablers and inhibitors are not simply the opposites.
The objective of this paper is to identify factors which inhibit BPS and to deduce management actions which help successfully standardize processes. To answer this question, we study the case of an international process standardization project in a global maintenance company. We derive a set of inhibiting factors for BPS. Thereby, some of these inhibitors have to be considered for any organizational change project while others are BPS specific. The specific inhibitors are analyzed in detail and discussed by mirroring them to non-BP standardization research.