This study examined teacher and mother judgement accuracy of children’s worries and emotionality in the school subjects of German and mathematics. The participants were 59 German language and 58 mathematics teachers, 572 mothers and their children at the end of Grade 6. The analyses for the total sample revealed weak-to-moderate correlations between adult’s and children’s perception of test anxiety. Moreover, we found that teachers overestimated children’s emotionality as well as children’s worry, whereas mothers underestimated children’s worry and overestimated children’s emotionality in both subjects. However, when looking at the highly test-anxious children, we found quite low correlations and an underestimation of children’s worry and emotionality in both school subjects. Thus, it seems important to provide teachers and parents with information about test anxiety and possibly training to improve their judgement accuracy because of moderating effects of test anxiety on achievement.
The eight articles of this Special Issue describe the assessment of competencies
within the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) for major educational-
stage-comprehensive assessment domains of the NEPS. The Editorial outlines
the overall framework for the selection and conceptualization of the assessment
of competencies against the background of existing models and approaches in national
and international large-scale assessments and panel studies. The functional-
integrative perspective on competencies is introduced and briefly described
with reference to the competence domains integrated into the NEPS assessments.
Moreover, the assessment design implemented within the fi rst five years is presented
to illustrate the scientific potential of this unique pattern of competence assessments
within the NEPS.
The idea of Matthew effects in reading-the widening achievement gap
between good and poor readers-has attracted considerable attention in
education research in the past 25 years. Despite the popularity of the topic,
however, empirical studies that have analyzed the core assumption of
Matthew effects in reading have produced inconsistent results. This review
summarizes the empirical findings on the development of early interindividual
differences in reading. We did not find strong support for the general
validity of a pattern of widening achievement differences or for a pattern of
decreasing achievement differences in reading. The inclusion of moderating
variables, however, allowed a clearer picture to be painted. Matthew effects
were more likely to occur for measures of decoding efficiency, vocabulary,
and composite reading scores when the achievement tests were not affected
by deficits in measurement precision. Furthermore, moderators such as the
applied analytic method or the orthographic consistency of the language
were of less importance for the emergence of Matthew effects in reading. An
additional meta-analysis of studies reporting correlations between a baseline
level and a growth parameter yielded a small, negative mean correlation
(r = −.214), which again was moderated by properties of the measures.
Possible explanations for the reported findings are discussed.
Within the school context substantial correlations between interests and grades are well documented, but the causal ordering still remains unclear. The paper examines how the relation between interests and grades over several measurement waves in elementary school age can be characterized, whether gender differences in the pattern of effects can be shown, and whether the effects are school-subject-specific. The present analysis follows N = 1.199 students in the 3rd Grade over a year and a half. It can be shown that grading determines the level of future interests but not vice versa. Thereby, the pattern of results concerning interests and grades is similar for boys and girls. The effects of grades on subsequent interests are mostly school-subject-specific.
My doctoral thesis is one of the few existing studies on post-retirement employment in Germany. It is the first study which implements a longitudinal micro-macro perspective. My research contributes new insights to the relationship of individuals' and firms' attributes and post-retirement employment. Another contribution to literature is the examination of actual employment behavior in retirement instead of only focusing on expectations of how people think they would behave once they are retired. The theoretical model shoes how changes within the society influences individual behavior and the development of post-retirement employment as one type within the concept of emerging patchwork biographies in society. By explaining individual behavior regarding post-retirement employment my research identifies attributes which can be used by public policy to support changes within the society. On the micro-level I pursue a two-stage design. First, I analyze the probability of pursuing post-retirement employment. Conditional on being in the labor force in retirement, in the second stage, I study transition times into different post-retirement jobs trajectories. In sum, my research shows that a considerable portion of retirees in Germany are employed. The probability of holding a post-retirement job is declining with increasing pension incomes. Retirees with higher labor market attachment show the highest probabilities of staying in their work environment after retirement. In contrast, retirees who are exposed to old age poverty are more likely to switch their working environments in retirement. I show that motivations for post-retirement employment are not mutually exclusive. This indicates that the political debate on post-retirement employment has to shift from discussing the reason for post-retirement employment, towards a debate about the heterogeneity of the workforce beyond retirement.
The phenomena of manipulation of the economy by the incumbent for electoral
purpose are called Political Business Cycles (PBC), introduced by Nordhaus (1975). Using
policy control economic instruments, as fiscal and monetary instruments, government may
manipulate the economy to gain electoral advantage by producing growth and decreasing
unemployment before elections.
In addition to increased public expenditures, also the production/supply of certain
publicly provided goods may score improvements. In Albania, production and supply of
electricity (for the time span of our analyzes) was controlled by KESH (Korporata
Energjitike Shqiptare – Albanian Energy Corporation) which is a quasi- monopoly in the
supply of electricity in Albania, and it is publicly run. Throughout the transition, supply of
electricity, due to various technical and economic reasons, has not been stable, and
characterized by systematic interruption for households and businesses users, affecting
their well-being and performance (electricity is a main source of energy for households,
including heating and cooking). Therefore, it seems so that there is an incentive and
rationale for the incumbent to use also the provision of electricity to impress the voters
before elections, beside of the classical instruments of expenditures.
In this paper we analyze consumption, production and import of electricity in Albania.
Our hypothesis is that before elections, electricity consumption may increase above usual
levels, followed by a contraction after elections. In our analysis we use modern standard
econometric approach, used widely for research related to PBC. By ARMA modelling it is
possible to prove if elections can explain changes in electricity production, in addition to
the past history of the variable and the random error term.