The escalating rate of energy consumption underpins the need to set goals that promote a reduction in CO2 emissions. In 2011 the transport sector contributed 23% to the total EU CO2 emissions; road transport alone was responsible for 71% of this 23% compared to 12% from aviation transport. Corporate car drivers drive, on average, three times more than private car users in Europe (21,500 miles). An improvement in their fuel efficiency, by encouraging sustainable driving using eco-feedback technologies, has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and promote fuel cost savings of 1% to 8%. This paper evaluates, through an explorative structured analysis, these findings further by defining recommendations for an organization intending to use eco-feedback technologies to reduce the overall corporate fleet's CO2 emission. The theoretical analysis of these findings, through the lens of the Feedback Intervention Theory and appraisal of corporate car drivers' extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, revealed that it is imperative to raise driver's awareness of their fuel consumption. Drivers' concerns regarding management monitoring leading to control and punishment, if their fuel efficiency has not improved, must be addressed. It is essential that an organizational roll-out is not associated with punishments, but focused on motivating employees by providing extrinsic motivation through realistic goal setting and constructive feedback.
There is an on-going trend towards turning paper documents that store personal information or other valuable data into machine-readable form. An example of this trend is the electronic passport that will become common in the near future. In this paper we show how the security of these machine readable documents could be improved by combining RFID with optical memory devices. We propose integrating an optical memory device into the RFID enabled smart document and present methods how these two storage media can be combined to secure the document against threats like illicit scanning, eavesdropping and forgery. The presented approaches make use of the optical document-to-reader channel which is more secure than the radio-frequency communication interface. To demonstrate the potential of our approaches we show how they could overcomea number of existing security and privacy threats of electronic passports.
There is an on-going trend towards turning paper documents that store personal information or other valuable data into machine-readable form. An example of this trend is the electronic passport that will become common in the near future. In this paper we show how the security of these machine readable documents could be improved by combining RFID with optical memory devices. We propose integrating an optical memory device into the RFID enabled smart document and present methods how these two storage media can be combined to secure the document against threats like illicit scanning, eavesdropping and forgery. The presented approaches make use of the optical document-to-reader channel which is more secure than the radio-frequency communication interface. To demonstrate the potential of our approaches we show how they could overcome a number of existing security and privacy threats of electronic passports.
Legislation, customer pressure, and energy costs are increasing the interest of enterprises in environmental performance indicators such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy usage. Currently, business users take decisions across the value chain, from product design to disposal, without the ability to compare the environmental impact of alternatives within their information systems, thus limiting the optimization potential. In this paper we consider procurement as an example business operation and show how capturing previously-unknown material parameters in the respective information system can significantly increase the achievable optimizations. We use apple procurement into the U.K. to illustrate the paper’s idea, and conduct Monte Carlo analysis to quantify the realizable impact reductions as each additional life cycle parameter is tracked. The results show that taking into account the production country alone achieves a decrease in energy consumption of around 1250MJ per ton of apples, equivalent to 28% reduction from the base case.
The personal transport sector constitutes an important target of energy conservation and emission reduction programs. In this context, eco-feedback technologies that provide information on the driving behavior have shown to be an effective means to stimulate changes in driving in favor of both, reduced costs and environmental impact. This study extends the literature on eco-feedback technologies as it demonstrates that a smartphone application can improve fuel efficiency even under conditions where monetary incentives are not given, i.e. where the drivers do not pay for fuel. The field test, which took place with 50 corporate car drivers, demonstrates an improvement in the overall fuel efficiency by 3.23%. The theoretical contribution underlines the assumption that context-related feedback can favorably influence behavior even without direct financial benefits for the agent. Given the large share of corporate cars, findings are also of high practical importance and motivate future research on eco-driving feedback technologies.
Purpose – Trade in counterfeit goods is perceived as a substantial threat to various industries. No longer is the emergence of imitation products confined to branded luxury goods and final markets. Counterfeit articles are increasingly finding their way into other sectors, including the fast-moving consumer goods, pharmaceutical, and automotive industries – with, in part, severe negative consequences for consumers, licit manufacturers, and brand owners alike. This paper seeks to shed light on the economic principles of counterfeit trade and the underlying illicit supply chains.
Design/methodology/approach – An extensive literature review was conducted that comprised contributions from different strands of management research.
Findings – Though governments as well as management have clearly identified the problem, very little is known – both in practice and theory – about the mechanisms and structure of the illicit market, the tactics of counterfeit producers, consumer behavior with respect to imitation products and the financial impact on individual companies. The diversity of the counterfeit phenomenon underlines the need for further research in this area and the development of company-specific measures for fighting product piracy.
Research limitations/implications – The clandestine nature of the counterfeit market limits direct accessibility to the phenomenon. Consequently, the existing body of literature does not necessarily cover all aspects of counterfeit activities. The review helps to highlight existing research gaps but may not be able to identify additional aspects of the phenomenon that, thus far, have not been deemed relevant.
Originality/value – The paper critically reviews the current state of research across different management-related disciplines. From an academic perspective it may serve as a starting point for a future research agenda that addresses the current knowledge gaps. From a practitioner's perspective it is helpful for understanding the relevant influence factors and for developing appropriate, state-of-the-art counterstrategies.
In today's business, there is a growing problem of product counterfeiting and piracy. Criminals have considerable expertise and resources that enable them to produce and sell counterfeits of products. The proposed solution aims at providing unique and secure authentication mechanisms of a given item, in order to distinguish between genuine products and counterfeits. As underlying technology, the approach utilizes RFID technology: transponders hold unique and cryptographically secured data that uniquely binds a given product to a given tag, and thus makes duplication or re-application of tags difficult
The following contribution introduces an approach to avert removal-reapplication attacks of RIFD transponders. This is achieved by tightly coupling security tags with individual objects using object specific data.
This work presents the hardware design of a dynamically reconfigurable function unit (RFU) to accelerate computation-intensive tasks in Medium Access Control (MAC) layers of WLANs. The function unit is integrated in a pipelined 32 bit RISC processor and provides full hardware support for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as specified in upcoming WLAN standards such as IEEE 802.11i. Dynamic reconfiguration allows the processor to use arithmetic components and memory elements of the RFU not only for AES, but also for additional tasks common in the MAC-layer. With our approach it is possible to accelerate Reed-Solomon-Code generation, Cyclic Redundancy Checks as well as other encryption standards like SQUARE, Magenta and Twofish by supporting Galois Field multiplication and table look-ups. The integration of the reconfigurable unit in the processor core results in an architecture that can simultaneously support control-flow and data-flow oriented tasks. This architecture was prototyped onto a Virtex2 FPGA.
This paper presents the design of a function-specific dynamically reconfigurable architecture for error detection and error correction. The function-unit is integrated in a pipelined 32 bit RISC processor and provides full hardware support for encoding and decoding of Reed- Solomon Codes with different code lengths as well as error detection methods like bit-parallel Cyclic Redundancy Check codes computation. The architecture is designed and optimized for the usage in the medium access control layer of mobile wireless communication systems and provides simultaneously hardware support for control-flow and data-flow oriented tasks.