Our aim is to assess how the number of working-class students entering German universities can effectively be increased. Therefore, we estimate the proportion of students from the working class that would successfully enter university if certain policy interventions were in place to eliminate primary effects (performance differentials between social classes) and/or secondary effects (choice differentials net of performance) at different transition points. We extend previous research by analysing the sequence of transitions between elementary school enrolment and university enrolment and by accounting for the impact that manipulations at earlier transitions have on the performance distribution and size of the student ‘risk-set’ at subsequent transitions. To this end, we develop a novel simulation procedure which seeks to find viable solutions to the shortcomings in the German data landscape. Our findings show that interventions are most effective if they take place early in the educational career. Neutralizing secondary effects at the transition to upper secondary school proves to be the single most effective means of increasing participation rates in tertiary education among working-class students. However, this comes at the expense of lower average performance levels.
Despite educational expansion and decreasing social inequalities in access to upper secondary education, increasing social inequalities can be found in the transition from upper secondary to tertiary education in Germany. Drawing on Boudon’s distinction between primary and secondary effects of social origin, we describe two potential sources which can be considered responsible for the observed pattern: first, an increase in performance differentials between upper secondary graduates from different social backgrounds, and second, a heterogenization of educational motivations and post-secondary plans among upper secondary graduates. We test these hypotheses with a series of datasets of upper secondary graduation cohorts from 1976 to 2002, provided by the German Higher Education Information System and apply a decomposition method in order to test the development of the contribution of various measures of primary and secondary effects. We find that primary effects play only a negligible role for the explanation of increasing social inequalities over time, whereas the growing class-specific differences in the transition to tertiary education are primarily due to increasing secondary effects.
Aesthetic appreciation is a complex cognitive processing with inherent aspects of cold as well as hot cognition. Research
from the last decades of empirical has shown that evaluations of aesthetic appreciation are highly reliable. Most
frequently, facial attractiveness was used as the corner case for investigating aesthetic appreciation. Evaluating facial
attractiveness shows indeed high internal consistencies and impressively high inter-rater reliabilities, even across
cultures. Although this indicates general and stable mechanisms underlying aesthetic appreciation, it is also obvious that
our taste for specific objects changes dynamically. Aesthetic appreciation on artificial object categories, such as fashion,
design or art is inherently very dynamic. Gaining insights into the cognitive mechanisms that trigger and enable
corresponding changes of aesthetic appreciation is of particular interest for research as this will provide possibilities to
modeling aesthetic appreciation for longer durations and from a dynamic perspective. The present paper refers to a recent
two-step model ("the dynamical two-step-model of aesthetic appreciation"), dynamically adapting itself, which accounts
for typical dynamics of aesthetic appreciation found in different research areas such as art history, philosophy and
psychology. The first step assumes singular creative sources creating and establishing innovative material towards
which, in a second step, people adapt by integrating it into their visual habits. This inherently leads to dynamic changes
of the beholders' aesthetic appreciation.
When it comes to conserving electricity, it is crucial for users to know how much energy is consumed by individual appliances. However, the technical feedback provided by existing energy consumption feedback systems in the form of dry numbers and intangible units is not appropriate for most users. To address this shortcoming, we developed PowerPedia, a system that provides behavior-influencing feedback over and above pure consumption values. By integrating a community platform—a Wikipedia for electrical appliances—PowerPedia enables users to identify and compare the consumption of their domestic appliances with that of others. It thus helps users to better understand their electricity consumption and take effective action to save electricity.
Counterfeit trade is amulti-billion dollar industry affecting anever-wider range of goods andmarkets. Despite the
diversity of counterfeit products in terms of complexity, manufacturing techniques, investments in production
facilities, potential dangers or value for the users, and degrees of conflict for the counterfeit producers with the
local authorities, current academic literature still refers to counterfeit producers as one homogeneous group.
Against this background, the present study investigates the existence of strategic groups among counterfeiters
based on an empirical examination of counterfeited products using cluster analysis. The results indicate that
brand owners are confronted with five different groups of counterfeiters: (1) disaggregators, (2) imitators, (3)
fraudsters, (4) desperados, and (5) smugglers. The findings of this study contribute to a more differentiated
understanding of each group's learning and growth strategies and help practitioners to better position their
companies with respect to the counterfeit market.