In dieser Arbeit stellen wir die grundlegenden Eigenschaften von Strommärkten dar, um dann auf deren Bedeutung bei der Bewertung von Stromderivaten einzugehen. Hierbei sind insbesondere die Reduced-Form-Modelle von zentraler Bedeutung. Ausgehend von dem grundlegenden Ansatz von Lucia/Schwartz (2002) zur Bewertung von Stromkontrakten diskutieren wir Modellerweiterungen, die sich in den letzten Jahren in der Literatur herausgebildet haben. Eine zentrale Aufgabe kommt der adäquaten Berücksichtigung von Preissprüngen zu, wobei die spezifischen Charakteristika einzelner Strommärkte einzubeziehen sind. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass Regime-Switching-Modelle, als Teil der Reduced- Form-Modelle, eine gute Möglichkeit bieten, Strompreise sowohl in Bezug auf ihre statistischen Eigenschaften als auch ihre Trajektorie angemessen zu modellieren.
This research analyzes tradingstrategies with derivatives when there are several assets and risk factors. We investigate portfolio improvement if investors have full and partialaccess to the derivativesmarkets, i.e. situations in which derivatives are written on some but not all stocks or risk factors traded on the market. The focus is on markets with jump risk. In these markets the choice of optimal exposures to jump and diffusion risk is linked. In a numerical application we study the potential benefit from adding derivatives to the market. It turns out that e.g. diffusion correlation and volatility or jump sizes may have a significant impact on the benefit of a new derivative product even if market prices of risk remain unchanged. Given the structure of risk investors may have different preferences for making risk factors tradable. Utility gains provided by new derivatives may be both increasing or decreasing depending on the type of contract added.
The thesis thoroughly discusses the valuation of derivatives in the European cross-border electricity market. It covers two distinct electricity markets in Europe and discusses the two most important types of derivatives within the European cross-border electricity market. Moreover, this thesis introduces the relevant risk factors associated with cross-border markets and estimates these risk-factors based on the major derivative instruments. Finally, it delivers a profound analysis of the valuation of these contracts. In the first part of the thesis, we analyze the ex-post risk premia of CfDs traded at Nord Pool. It is shown that CfDs contain significant risk premia that substantially vary in both sign and magnitude across market areas. We then investigate the development of these risk premia over time-to-maturity and identify their main economic drivers. Results show a strong coherency between ex-post risk premia and time-to-maturity. Although not significant for CfDs, this relation is highly significant for implied area and system forwards, the two constituents of CfDs. In addition, we identify a strong relationship between risk premia and the variance and skewness of the underlying spot prices and also find a significant impact of hydropower on spot prices and risk premia in the Nordic market. In the second part, this thesis discusses the valuation of hourly PTRs for the German-Dutch interconnector. We propose a spike-diffusion model and estimate its physical and risk-neutral parameters using the method of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Using those parameters, we compare the empirical and risk-neutral densities for the underlying price spreads. Our results show first of all that the spike-diffusion model adequately describes the underlying PTR prices especially during calm hours. Second, the estimated parameters show that during calm hours PTRs are traded at a discount, whereas market participants are willing to pay a premium for PTRs during turbulent hours. The premium implicit in those PTRs can be explained by either increased hedging demand or speculation of market participants. Furthermore, we find evidence for seasonality in the residuals of hourly and monthly PTR option prices. For monthly PTRs and hourly PTRs during turbulent hours, this seasonality is strongly related to jumps in the underlying spread. This result, in contrast to prior work, is the first based on not only spot but also option prices and offers further insights in the valuation of derivatives in cross-border as well as national electricity markets.