Several problems exist in accurately quantifying the greenhouse gases (GHG) which result from the production, transportation, usage, and recycling of products. We review in this paper the current attempts at measuring GHG emissions and investigate the potential of UbiComp technologies in improving the state of the art in carbon footprint calculation and in communicating the result to
consumers. This has potential benefits on consumer awareness and behaviour and can also foster competition among companies towards higher energy and resource efficiency.
In this paper, we investigate how RFID and NFC could improve current customs processes to fight illicit trade. During the import process, customs officers have to evaluate which consignments are inspected and, when an inspection takes place, whether intellectual property rights have been infringed. We propose and evaluate new micro processes that leverage the dualexistence of products and logistic units in order to enable easier, faster and more reliable inspection of goods. The impact of the improved processes is analyzed with an example case.
In industries including aerospace, pharmaceuticals, and perishables, as covered in the preceding chapters, counterfeit trade has developed into a severe problem. While established security features such as holograms, micro printings, and chemical markers do not seem to efficiently avert trade in illicit imitation products, RFID technology, with its potential to automate product authentications, may become a powerful tool to enhance brand and product protection. The following contribution aims at structuring the requirement definition for such a system by providing a non-formal attack model, and outlines several principal approaches to RFID-based solutions.
There is an on-going trend towards turning paper documents that store personal information or other valuable data into machine-readable form. An example of this trend is the electronic passport that will become common in the near future. In this paper we show how the security of these machine readable documents could be improved by combining RFID with optical memory devices. We propose integrating an optical memory device into the RFID enabled smart document and present methods how these two storage media can be combined to secure the document against threats like illicit scanning, eavesdropping and forgery. The presented approaches make use of the optical document-to-reader channel which is more secure than the radio-frequency communication interface. To demonstrate the potential of our approaches we show how they could overcomea number of existing security and privacy threats of electronic passports.
The following contribution introduces an approach to avert removal-reapplication attacks of RIFD transponders. This is achieved by tightly coupling security tags with individual objects using object specific data.
In this article, the relationship between study programs in higher education and the risk of
holding a temporary contract is investigated in a comparative perspective. We fi nd that the
effects fi elds of study have on the type of contract can be better explained by their link to
occupational positions than by fi
city differentials. Furthermore, fi
elds of study
are more important in explaining the individual risk of holding a temporary contract in the
German rather than in the UK labor market. This may be attributable to the higher degree
of standardization of the German educational system
Counterfeit trade developed into a severe problem for many industries. While established security features such as holograms, micro printings or chemical markers do not seem to efficiently avert trade in illicit imitation products, RFID technology, with its potential to automate product authentications, may become a powerful tool to enhance brand and product protection. The following contribution contains an overview on the implication of product counterfeiting on affected companies, provides a starting point for a structured requirements definition for RFID-based anti-counterfeiting systems, and outlines several principal solution approaches that are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent chapters.