To investigate the interrater reliability of stroboscopy evaluations assessed using Poburka's Stroboscopy Evaluation Rating Form (SERF).
Single-factor experiment with repeated measures on the same element.
Evaluations of nine experts pertaining to 68 stroboscopy recordings and 16 SERF variables were analyzed. For the 14 SERF variables possessing interval scale level, interrater reliability was investigated using the intraclass correlations for absolute agreement (ICC-a) and consistency (ICC-c). ICCs-c were computed for both original values and values standardized with respect to raters' means and standard deviations (ipsative values). For the two nominally scaled SERF variables, "vertical level" and "glottal closure" interrater reliability was investigated using kappa coefficients.
For evaluations of single raters, ICCs-a ranged from 0.32 to 0.71, ICCs-c for original values from 0.41 to 0.72, and ICCs-c for ipsative values from 0.43 to 0.72. For mean evaluations of two raters, the corresponding values were 0.48 to 0.83 for ICCs-a, 0.58 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for original values, and 0.60 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for ipsative values. The interval scale variables with the lowest interrater reliabilities were phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity. The kappa coefficients for vertical level and glottal closure were 0.15 and 0.38, respectively.
The interrater reliabilities for vertical level, glottal closure, phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity are so low that these variables should not be assessed via stroboscopy. For the remaining variables, adequate reliability can be obtained by aggregating evaluations from at least two raters.
1 In this study we discuss the psychological mechanisms which favour social behaviour of
individuals in society and its importance for social cohesion. We ask for the meaning of core social
competencies as a sustainable contribution to quality in education and social cohesion in society.
2 The mechanisms leading to showed social competencies are described as interplay of
cognitive aspects of language competencies, the ability to change perspective, emotional and
motivational aspects as self-regulation, respect, empathy, self-concept, self-esteem, and value attitudes
as, for example, attitudes toward violence, diversity and participation. Theses personal competences
lead to social behaviour when interfacing with an environment of accountability, fairness and
meritocracy. Therefore enhancing core social competencies is not only an educational task but refers
to all levels of society, especially social and labour politics.
3 The study shows that these core social competencies are linked to quality education and lead
to a better academic achievement. The paper describes experiences with teacher training aiming to
enhance the core social competencies of teachers and students. Hints for effective evaluations are
given. The study highlights recommendations for different stakeholders.
4 The study is based on a mix-method-design, including literature review of related research,
case studies of different approaches in the field and experts’ comments. Beside case-study experiences
from literature, the study is related to two field studies taken for this paper. One study describes a
long-time program in Cameroon, attempting to work on the autonomy and self-responsibility of
students and teachers in order to reach higher quality of education. The other study is about a program
in Rwanda, working on a post-genocide pedagogy, focussing on an active and participatory education.
Both programs worked with teacher training but used different methodologies (in Cameroon, teacher
experts groups; in Rwanda trainings for the entire team of schools). Both had been evaluated by an
out-come evaluation, including tests.
The strong effects of descriptive normative feedback (“how you compare to others”) on an individual’s electricity consumption have been documented in the IS literature. Here, we extend prior research on reference group effects (“whom to compare with”) by defining the relevance of the reference group in terms of similarity in contextual factors as opposed to personal characteristics. Specifically, we manipulate the spatial proximity of reference groups and test whether population density moderates the effects of feedback. In a field study with 560 energy customers, we find that reference groups that are close in terms of geographical proximity are more effective than more distant groups. However, population density does not moderate this effect. Designer of green information systems should therefore use reference groups that are close to the energy consumer with regard to geographical proximity, but they do not need to tailor the intervention to the energy consumer’s location.