Several problems exist in accurately quantifying the greenhouse gases (GHG) which result from the production, transportation, usage, and recycling of products. We review in this paper the current attempts at measuring GHG emissions and investigate the potential of UbiComp technologies in improving the state of the art in carbon footprint calculation and in communicating the result to
consumers. This has potential benefits on consumer awareness and behaviour and can also foster competition among companies towards higher energy and resource efficiency.
In this paper, we investigate how RFID and NFC could improve current customs processes to fight illicit trade. During the import process, customs officers have to evaluate which consignments are inspected and, when an inspection takes place, whether intellectual property rights have been infringed. We propose and evaluate new micro processes that leverage the dualexistence of products and logistic units in order to enable easier, faster and more reliable inspection of goods. The impact of the improved processes is analyzed with an example case.
In industries including aerospace, pharmaceuticals, and perishables, as covered in the preceding chapters, counterfeit trade has developed into a severe problem. While established security features such as holograms, micro printings, and chemical markers do not seem to efficiently avert trade in illicit imitation products, RFID technology, with its potential to automate product authentications, may become a powerful tool to enhance brand and product protection. The following contribution aims at structuring the requirement definition for such a system by providing a non-formal attack model, and outlines several principal approaches to RFID-based solutions.
There is an on-going trend towards turning paper documents that store personal information or other valuable data into machine-readable form. An example of this trend is the electronic passport that will become common in the near future. In this paper we show how the security of these machine readable documents could be improved by combining RFID with optical memory devices. We propose integrating an optical memory device into the RFID enabled smart document and present methods how these two storage media can be combined to secure the document against threats like illicit scanning, eavesdropping and forgery. The presented approaches make use of the optical document-to-reader channel which is more secure than the radio-frequency communication interface. To demonstrate the potential of our approaches we show how they could overcomea number of existing security and privacy threats of electronic passports.
The following contribution introduces an approach to avert removal-reapplication attacks of RIFD transponders. This is achieved by tightly coupling security tags with individual objects using object specific data.
In this article, the relationship between study programs in higher education and the risk of
holding a temporary contract is investigated in a comparative perspective. We fi nd that the
effects fi elds of study have on the type of contract can be better explained by their link to
occupational positions than by fi
city differentials. Furthermore, fi
elds of study
are more important in explaining the individual risk of holding a temporary contract in the
German rather than in the UK labor market. This may be attributable to the higher degree
of standardization of the German educational system
Counterfeit trade developed into a severe problem for many industries. While established security features such as holograms, micro printings or chemical markers do not seem to efficiently avert trade in illicit imitation products, RFID technology, with its potential to automate product authentications, may become a powerful tool to enhance brand and product protection. The following contribution contains an overview on the implication of product counterfeiting on affected companies, provides a starting point for a structured requirements definition for RFID-based anti-counterfeiting systems, and outlines several principal solution approaches that are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent chapters.
Offering services anonymously on the Internet using so-called location-hidden services requires complex protocols with many different nodes involved. These properties result in performance problems, e.g. a simple website request taking tens of seconds. This work describes a setup to measure the performance of hidden services using the worldwide Tor network. It analyzes the results and proposes changes to the protocol to improve the performance without losing anonymity.
Privacy on the Internet is becoming more and more important, as an increasing part of everyday life takes place over the Internet. Internet users lose the ability to control which information they give away about themselves or are even not aware that they do so. Privacy-enhancing technologies help control private information on the Internet, for example, by anonymizing Internet communication. Up to now, work on privacy-enhancing technologies has mainly focused on privacy of users requesting public services. This thesis introduces a new privacy risk that occurs when private persons run their own services. One example are instant messaging systems which allow users to exchange presence information and text messages in real time. These systems usually do not provide protection of presence information which is stored on central servers. As an alternative, decentralized instant messaging system designs mitigate this problem by having private persons provide instant messaging services to each other. However, providing a service as a private person causes new security problems as compared to providing a service as an organization or enterprise: First, the presence of such a service reveals information about the availability of the service provider. Second, the server location needs to be concealed in order to hide the whereabouts of a person. Third, the server needs to be specifically protected from unauthorized access attempts. This thesis proposes to use pseudonymous services as a building block for private services. Pseudonymous services conceal the location of a server that provides a specific service. The contribution made here is to analyze what parts of pseudonymous services, in particular Tor hidden services, are missing in order to apply them for private services. This analysis leads to three main problems for which solutions are proposed: First, known pseudonymous service designs do not scale to the expected number of private services which might be provided in the future. This thesis proposes a new approach to store hidden service descriptors in a distributed data structure rather than on central servers. A particular focus lies on the support of private entries which are required for private services. Second, pseudonymous services leak too much information about service identity during advertisement in the network and connection establishment by clients. The approach taken in this thesis is to reduce the information that a service publishes in the network to a minimum and prevent unauthorized clients from accessing a service already during connection establishment. These changes protect service activity and usage patterns from non-authorized entities. Third, pseudonymous services exhibit worse performance than direct service access. The contribution of this thesis is to measure performance, identify possible problems, and propose improvements.