One of the attractions of Sofia, capital of Bulgaria, is the monument to its liberator, Russian Tsar Alexander II. The article contrasts the treatment of the monument during socialist time with the period before and after this interlude.
A growing body of literature reports evidence of social interaction effects in survey expectations. In this note, we argue that evidence in favor of social interaction effects should be treated with caution, or could even be spurious. Utilizing a parsimonious stochastic model of expectation formation and dy- namics, we show that the existing sample sizes of survey expectations are about two orders of magnitude too small to reasonably distinguish between noise and interaction effects. Moreover, we argue that the problem is com- pounded by the fact that highly correlated responses among agents might not be caused by interaction effects at all, but instead by model-consistent beliefs. Ultimately, these results suggest that existing survey data cannot facilitate our understanding of the process of expectations formation.
The economic crisis has brought a new situation also for the Hungarian economic
policy, as neoliberalism as the main trend in economic thought is no
longer valid. This phenomenon cannot be reduced to be a mere macroeconomic
course shift, as an entire economic philosophy and approach has lost its relevance.
One consequence of this is the need for a thorough revision of the theory
and practice of business management, along with the re-evaluation of the notion
and position of the corporation.
Our study aims to contribute to this theoretical reformation, presenting that social
values derived from psychological and sociological findings such as human
motivational theories or trust are fundamental elements of the 21st century corporate
model. To point to this, we use the ideological correspondences, while
proving that our national research on corporate theory and even rather its application
are far behind the 21st century requirements and lack even the Western
view of the 20th century.
The market structure can be described by concentration ratios based on the
oligopoly theory or the structure – conduct – performance paradigm. Measures of
concentration and also competition are essential for banks conduction in the
banking industry. Several researchers have proved concentration level to be major
determinants of banking system efficiency. Theoretical characteristics of market
concentration measures are illustrated with empirical evidence. The market
structure of the Albanian Banking Sector has changed dramatically in recent years.
On 1990s, our country has experienced deregulation, foreign bank penetration, and
an accelerated process of consolidation and competition in the banking sector.
Particularly, the working paper examines the nature and the extent of changes in
market concentration of Albanian banking sector. It focused primarily on a
descriptive and dynamic analysis of change in the concentration indices in banking
sector from year to year. Also it examines how the inherited structure of the
banking system affects the way of the distribution of market shares amongst the
different banks that comprise on the banking sector.
This paper provides new insights into the association between economic standing and subjective well-being (SWB) among aging individuals in three industrialized countries: Germany, Israel, and Sweden. Specifically, we compare the effects of wealth, in line with the growing consensus that wealth is an important determinant of economic standing alongside income, on SWB across three welfare-state regimes: conservative (Germany), liberal (Israel), and social-democratic (Sweden). Drawing on needs theory, we hypothesize that individuals of poor wealth would report lower levels of SWB in all countries. We expect, however, the association between poor wealth and SWB to be stronger in the liberal system (Israel) and weaker in the conservative system (Germany) with the weakest effect found in the social-democratic system (Sweden) due to differences in the extent of social benefits each welfare-state regime provides its residents. To test our hypotheses, we utilize data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe(SHARE1). Results indicate that income and wealth explain a greater part of the variance in SWB when taken together. We find a ‘poor penalty’ on SWB in Germany and Israel while in Sweden wealth has no impact on SWB. Finally, when controlling for subjective economic hardship (needs), the negative effect of poor wealth on SWB disappears in Germany, but maintains significance in Israel, suggesting that needs theory alone cannot explain the poor penalty in Israel. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the welfare-state has an impact on the wealth–SWB relation and that the mechanisms that underlie this relation operate differently in Germany and Israel.
Universities often offer support programs to assist first-year students with the transition from school to university. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different mentoring styles on mentee academic performance after one year and two years of study. Participants consisted of 828 psychology students who started their course of study in winter term 2006/07 or 2007/08 at the University of Vienna. 328 students from winter term 2007/08 participated in the peer mentoring program Cascaded Blended Mentoring (Leidenfrost …), in which they were supported by 48 student mentors (advanced students) in small groups. The mentoring groups were classified according to one of three mentoring styles described by Leidenfrost, Strassnig, Schabmann, Carbon, and Spiel (2011): motivating master mentoring, informatory standard mentoring, and negative minimalist mentoring. Our data suggest that participants in the mentoring program performed better in their studies. Mentees from winter term 2007/08 achieved better average grades than non-mentees from winter term 2007/08. They passed a higher number of courses than non-mentees from winter term 2007/08 and students from winter term 2006/07. There was, however, no specific impact of the different mentoring styles on mentee academic performance.
What’s wrong with art fakes? We tested effects of art “forgery” on aesthetic appreciation and the quality of paintings in a multidimensional manner comprising cognitive and emotional variables: When naïve participants were exposed to replicas of works by renowned artists, information about the alleged authenticity status had a major effect on the perceived quality of the painting, and even on artist-associated values such as artist talent. All these variables were negatively influenced when depictions were labeled as copies compared to identical ones labeled as originals. Our findings show the importance of symbolic and personal values as modulators in art appreciation.