This paper summarizes the results of a study that tested and evaluated two methods for teaching phonemic transcription to German EFL students at university level. The research design included a control group and two training groups receiving treatment with different methods: one based on the transcription of auditive stimuli, the other based on a phonemic adaption of the board game Scrabble®. The different training methods had significant effects on the improvement of transcription skills. A comparison of the training groups did not yield significant differences – the descriptive statistics, however, suggest that phoneme scrabble cannot be recommended as a uniform teaching method.
This article highlights indications of the role of the classics in the teaching of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic as evidenced by the existing manuscripts from the period c. 950 to 1130 in England, that is, the roughly 180 years from the time when the changes brought about by the Benedictine Reform were felt in England until the full impact of Peter Abelard's writings set in. In an Appendix the article provides a full list of the manuscript evidence. The article itself discusses observations concerning the language arts which conform to the three criteria recently suggested as indicative of the classroom use of a given (instructional) text or manuscript: Firstly, the presence of modified, alongside full versions of teaching texts is evident in the tenth-century Excerptiones de Prisciano and Ælfric's further adaptation and translation of this text in his Old English Grammar. The modification of the end of Isidore’s book on rhetoric in Etymologiae, ii in the light of 'grammatical rhetoric' belongs here, as does a dialogue excerpt of Isidore's Etymologiae and Differentiae, which might well have served as an aid in teaching Isidore's De fide catholica. Secondly, didactic glosses and commentaries abound in educational manuscripts of the school authors, mainly for grammatical instruction with the aim of teaching how to read and interpret the Latin authors correctly; thus they represent the most obvious educational use of the classics. Furthermore, the commentary tradition on Ciceronian rhetoric is witnessed for the first time in early Anglo-Norman England. Thirdly and finally, the layout and disposition of the texts for educational purposes joins the instructional use of compilations of handbooks in the case of dialectical compilations and grammatical compilations which serve as information resources for the teacher. Schematic diagrams to visualize the structure of a complex exposition were clearly devised for didactic benefit. Included in the discussions is fresh evidence from the manuscripts Oxford, Bodl. Libr., MS Bodley 239 (2244) and BL, MS Royal 5. E. xvi.
This paper explores how phraseological units compete with monolexical units in the
monumental Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary (HTOED), primarily
in its online version. By means of several case studies, the status and coverage of
phraseological units is analysed both in the synonym lists (monolexical and phraseological
synonymy) and in the lower-level category headings (lexicographic synonymy),
where paraphrases and definitions are considered as further multi-word expressions.
The aim of the present paper is to assess the adequa
cy of how the grammatical status of the present
perfect (PP) is established in three reference gram
mars of English (Quirk et al. 1985; Biber et al.
1999; Huddleston and Pullum 2002). I propose that t
he categorizations both as aspect and as tense as
presented in these grammars have their inherent wea
knesses and are particularly de#cient when data
from varieties other than British or American Engli
sh is included. To test this assumption, I will ana
PP occurrences extracted from the
International Corpus of English
(ICE) appearing in contexts that have
traditionally been considered ungrammatical or at l
east odd. One such context is the co–occurrence of
the PP with de#nite temporal adverbials. In this ca
se, the PP is used like a simple past, which may be
taken as evidence for the tense status of the PP an
d will therefore be the focal point of the analysis.
Specification by certain temporal adverbials has been shown to be one of the typical triggers of the present perfect in British English. Often, however, L2 varieties display different patterns of temporal co-occurrence, especially using the simple past tense. This study is based on corpus data from twelve components of the International Corpus of English and analyzes the distribution between present perfect and past tense for a number of co-occurring temporal adverbials. In addition, it establishes three measures of similarity across the varieties (hierarchical cluster analysis, phylogenetic networks and a distribution-based measure). On the basis of 6 353 adverbials in total, this paper suggests (1) that there is a L1–L2 divide, (2) that the difference between “traditional” and “transplanted” L1 varieties is less pronounced, (3) that L2 varieties allow more variation, which indicates that in these varieties, the present perfect is partly used as a tense (sensu Quirk et al. 1985), and (4) that some temporal adverbials are less categorically attached to either present perfect or past tense than others. Finally, some conclusions with regard to the importance of geographical and socio-cultural proximity of certain varieties can be drawn.