This dissertation analyzes Open-End Turbo Certificates (OETCs), a popular class of retail derivatives. OETCs can be exercised at any time at the investor’s discretion. In order to explain the existence of the certificates jump risk must be considered. We propose and implement an optimal stopping approach to price these securities, which further allows for determining optimal exercise thresholds. They result from the trade-off between benefits from downward jump protection and financing costs. We show that early exercise right has a significant impact on their values. In an empirical analysis pertaining to the years 2007 through 2009 it turns out that certificates which could be rationally held are very rare, although the degree by which the underlying exceeds the optimal exercise thresholds continually declines over the considered period. We suggest three lines of explanation: general market movement, jump risk perception by the market, and increased competition among issuers.
In addition to catastrophe and operational risks like e.g. the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center airlines are exposed to substantial capital market risks. This study examines the cases of three major airlines including Lufthansa, United Airlines, and Qantas. Their risk profiles are analyzed with respect to commodity and exchange rate risks by applying the “Earnings at Risk”-concept to the profit and loss statements of the year 2003. Furthermore, potential hedging strategies are explored. It turns out that airlines are especially sensitive to movements of the oil price. However, hedges can provide (partial) protection against adverse movements of the risk factors.
This paper addresses the capital requirements based on the RiskMetrics™ framework and the BIS standard model. A case study is developed which shows that the capital requirements can be reduced by applying the more accurate RiskMetrics™ framework. Furthermore it gives an overview of the capital requirement rules for credit risk and operational risk in the Basel II Accord.