Two reading literacy/text comprehension tests with different demands (on-line comprehension vs. memory-based comprehension) were administered to 6,104 15-year-old students from all German states and school types. The combined and specific effects of proximal and distal variables from small-scale psychological research as well as from large-scale educational studies on each text comprehension measure were investigated.
Metacognitive knowledge, decoding speed, and the number of books at home (as an indicator for family background) were found to have specific and large effects on on-line comprehension and accounted for 46 percent of the variance with the highest effects for metacognition. Metacognitive knowledge was also highly predictive when the effects of specific prior knowledge and thematic interest on memory-based text comprehension were estimated simultaneously.
In addition, students who showed relative strength in building up a coherent representation of specific texts (memory-based text comprehension) were characterised by high amounts of prior knowledge and thematic interest thereby underlining the important of these student characteristics for learning.
The market structure can be described by concentration ratios based on the
oligopoly theory or the structure – conduct – performance paradigm. Measures of
concentration and also competition are essential for banks conduction in the
banking industry. Several researchers have proved concentration level to be major
determinants of banking system efficiency. Theoretical characteristics of market
concentration measures are illustrated with empirical evidence. The market
structure of the Albanian Banking Sector has changed dramatically in recent years.
On 1990s, our country has experienced deregulation, foreign bank penetration, and
an accelerated process of consolidation and competition in the banking sector.
Particularly, the working paper examines the nature and the extent of changes in
market concentration of Albanian banking sector. It focused primarily on a
descriptive and dynamic analysis of change in the concentration indices in banking
sector from year to year. Also it examines how the inherited structure of the
banking system affects the way of the distribution of market shares amongst the
different banks that comprise on the banking sector.
This study offers an account of the Present Perfect and its usage in worldwide varieties of English. It is based on corpus data from the International Corpus of English (ICE), which is assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. It follows up on two broad desiderata in Present Perfect research, namely (i) to extend the knowledge of this grammatical area beyond the traditional British/American English paradigm, and (ii) to provide a systematic account of language-external effects such as modes of discourse, macro-genres and text categories.
Occurrences of the Present Perfect are automatically extracted from part-of-speech tagged corpus files. Representative samples of the occurrences are then manually annotated for various factors (such as semantics, Aktionsart, temporal adverbials, sentence type, preceding tense, etc.) so that the distributions and the relative importance of these factors can be analyzed. In addition, the impact of alternative (non-standard) surface forms that may express a Present Perfect notion is considered.
Measures of similarity between the various varieties of English under investigation are established (e.g. with the help of multidimensional aggregational methods such as cluster analyses and phylogenetic networks) and findings are related to a number of general models of World Englishes, whose descriptive adequacy for this particular area of grammar is tested.
The economic crisis has brought a new situation also for the Hungarian economic
policy, as neoliberalism as the main trend in economic thought is no
longer valid. This phenomenon cannot be reduced to be a mere macroeconomic
course shift, as an entire economic philosophy and approach has lost its relevance.
One consequence of this is the need for a thorough revision of the theory
and practice of business management, along with the re-evaluation of the notion
and position of the corporation.
Our study aims to contribute to this theoretical reformation, presenting that social
values derived from psychological and sociological findings such as human
motivational theories or trust are fundamental elements of the 21st century corporate
model. To point to this, we use the ideological correspondences, while
proving that our national research on corporate theory and even rather its application
are far behind the 21st century requirements and lack even the Western
view of the 20th century.
In 1932 Frederic Bartlett laid the foundation for the later Schema Theory. His findings considerably contributed to the understanding of how previous knowledge affects processing of visual stimuli. Empirical proof however is sparse and Bartlett’s results are hardly verifiable. We replicated Bartlett’s methods of ‘serial’ (Experiment 1, N=177) and ‘repeated reproduction’ (Experiment 2, N=53). In both experiments undergraduates inspected particular one of different sketches variing in the degree of faceness. After a delay of a minimum of 15 minutes participants were asked to reproduce their visual imageries. In Experiment 1 we rotated the produced sketches among participants and repeated the procedure five times. In Experiment 2 we asked them to reproduce their visual imageries after minimum weekly delays for five times. In two subsequent studies the participant’s sketches were evaluated in the degree of faceness on a 7-point Likert-scale. In contrast to Bartlett’s findings the sketches did not become more face-like the more often the reproduction process was performed, indicating more complex cognitive processes underlying the schema formation. For Experiment 1 we even obtained reversed effects with less face-likeness after a series of reproduction. Further research should vary influential factors such as creativity, drawing abilities and delays to get further insights into the formation of memory from visual inputs.
A growing body of literature reports evidence of social interaction effects in survey expectations. In this note, we argue that evidence in favor of social interaction effects should be treated with caution, or could even be spurious. Utilizing a parsimonious stochastic model of expectation formation and dy- namics, we show that the existing sample sizes of survey expectations are about two orders of magnitude too small to reasonably distinguish between noise and interaction effects. Moreover, we argue that the problem is com- pounded by the fact that highly correlated responses among agents might not be caused by interaction effects at all, but instead by model-consistent beliefs. Ultimately, these results suggest that existing survey data cannot facilitate our understanding of the process of expectations formation.
This volume intends to give voice to one of the local agents of religious change in Africa by listening to the voice of Paul Dzampah, a Christian singer-songwriter in Ghana.
Among the broad movement of new, post-modern Christianity in Africa the songs which are documented in this volume are kind of outstanding as the author never tried to establish his own church and never intended to make his living with his songs. We find a prophetic voice here which does not want to be “churchy” and which moves beyond the wide-spread attempt of making money with religion.
The volume refrains from intensive analysis or extensive comment. The editor rather is just documenting these texts, and leaving the scientific analysis to others.
Using classical inference, hypothesis tests and confidence intervals are often based on large-sample assumptions, which are said to hold if the sample size is large enough.
The weakness of this approach is, that the researcher does not know what sample size is required for this purpose in a concrete situation.
A common problem that encounters in statistics is the procedure of modeling the relationship between explanatory variables and a binary response. Here logistic regression analysis often represents the appropriate method. This method is used to estimate the probability or odds of occurrence of the binary response in dependence of explanatory variables. But, what is the sample size to be large enough to base statistical conclusions on asymptotic properties?
The type of convergence, with which we are dealing here, is convergence in law, in the following denoted as L-convergence. If the limiting distribution of a statistic is continuous, then L-convergence is equivalent to convergence with respect to the Kolmogorov distance.
Therefore, the Kolmogorov distance is an effective tool for discussing the behavior of L-convergence.
The present work uses an autogenerated process that involves the classical theory of logistic regression analysis to explore the behavior of L-convergence by means of the Kolmogorov distance. Based on the Kolmogorov distance two methods are developed in order to investigate the behavior of L-convergence and its impacts on statistical conclusions. The first serves to extend the spectrum of methods to discuss the impacts of the Firth-penalization, the second to use the classical inference
as a more deliberate method with respect to asymptotic properties.
The first method consists of the distance-sample-size-diagram and the accuracy-diagram. The distance-sample-size-diagram represents the mean approximate Kolmogorov distance as a function of the predefined sample size. The predefined sample size is displayed on the horizontal axis and the mean approximate Kolmogorov distance between the statistic of interest and its limiting distribution on the vertical axis. This is a fruitful graphical representation of the behavior of L-convergence in dependence of the rate at which empirical information accrues. Finally the accuracy-diagram presents the actual accuracy function of a confidence interval and its reference derived from asymptotics. This diagram complements the distance-sample-size-diagram as a tool to study the impact of penalizations.
The second method, the p-value-uniform-diagram, shows the actual empirical cumulative distribution function of the p-values of a statical test and the cumulative distribution function of the uniform distribution as the reference of the former. A deviation from this reference indicates that L-convergence is not reached.