BPMN 2.0 Process Model Serialization Constraints
- Correct and standard compliant serializations of BPMN process models are crucial for model exchange between tools, automatic application of academic verification approaches and executability on BPMN engines. The official standard document does not provide an extensive set of all constraints regarding the correctness of model serializations. This technical reports fills this gap by presenting a categorized list of generic, technology independent constraints stated by the standard. Furthermore it is analyzed which rules are already covered when the standardized XSD-based serialization format is used.
Aluta continua biblical hermeneutics for liberation : interpreting biblical texts on slavery for liberation of Zimbabwean underclasses
- This book was passed as a PhD thesis at Bayreuth University, Germany. The author challenges African Biblical scholars and Christian leaders to premise Biblical interpretation on the experiences of the often neglected underclasses. The author argues that from a comparative historical, cultural and material methodological point of view, the experiences of the Zimbabwean underclasses whose collective ordeal is represented by the experiences of domestic workers are strikingly similar to those suffered by slaves among other underclasses in the biblical world. In the same way religion was appropriated by the elite to validate oppression of the underclasses in the biblical world, the author shows that since the colonial era, Christianity in Africa, through biblical interpretation among many other tactics has been an influential force on the side of the dominant class to advance their racial, class and gender interests. To date, in Zimbabwe for example, the Bible (and religion in general) is manipulated by the dominant minority to justify and entrench the exploitation of the majority underclasses. On the other hand, the author observes that the history of ancient Israel, Roman colonial Palestine and colonial Zimbabwe evidences that when religion is appropriated (and/or the Bible is read and interpreted) from the historical cultural and material conditions of the underclasses, it can be a valuable resource not only for their mobilization to overthrow oppressive systems but also for justifying their resistance tactics. Aluta Continua!!(The Struggle goes on!!)
Perceptual fluency does not necessarily increase aesthetic appreciation: Evidence against the Hedonic Fluency Model
- Aesthetic pleasure is a function of the perceiver’s processing dynamics. According to the Hedonic
Fluency Model (Winkielman et al, 2003, in
The Psychology of Evaluation: A
ective processes in
cognition and emotion
J Musch an
d K C Klauer, Mahwah, Erlbaum), the perceptual fluency of a stimulus
has an influence on a
ective judgments about this stimulus. This so-called Fluency A
ect Link predicts
higher positive judgments with increasing perceptual fluency. In the present experiment, stimuli of
erent levels of complexity and of positive as well as negative valence from the IAPS database were
tested for their aesthetic appreciation. Perceptual fluency was manipulated through perceptual priming.
Contrary to the predictions of the Hedonic Fluency Model, participants’(
20) aesthetic appreciation
only benefited from fluency of stimuli with positive, but not with negative valence. Actually, stimuli
with negative valence were judged more negative in the highly fluent than in the low fluent condition.
These findings are compatible with the Fluency Attribution Hypothesis (Jacoby et al, 1989, in
of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving
, H L Roediger and F I M Craik,
Hillsdale, Erlbaum), asking for an adaptation of current research hypotheses often derived from the
Hedonic Fluency Model.
Investigating response styles and item homogeneity using item response models
- Measurement invariance is a pre-requisite for drawing accurate and valid inferences concerning individuals’ trait levels from questionnaire data. However, several factors exist that can influence a person’s item responses in addition to his or her latent trait level. The research in this dissertation was aimed at investigating three of these factors: 1) individual differences in response styles, 2) the measurement invariance of items between subgroups of respondents, and 3) the measurement invariance of items across assessment periods.
Mixed Rasch analyses of data from the German NEO-PI-R showed that respondents differed systematically in their response scale use: some preferred extreme categories while others preferred moderate categories. Multidimensional item response models showed that response styles (especially extreme response style) explained variance in item responses that was incremental to the variance explained by the traits. Thus, individual differences in response styles had an influence on item responses.
The measurement invariance of items between subgroups of respondents was investigated with respect to differential item functioning for gender in the German NEO-PI-R. Several NEO-PI-R facets especially on neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness contained items that were not measurement invariant for men and women.
The measurement invariance of items across assessment periods was investigated for link items from the reading and science domains in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Measurement invariance was violated for both item sets. Some items showed large differences in item difficulty between assessments which may in part be attributed to changes in item wording and position effects.
In sum, it was shown that individual differences in response styles, the lack of measurement invariance of items between subgroups of respondents, and the lack of measurement invariance of items across assessment periods can impair the measurement of the intended traits and in consequence render trait inferences and comparisons between individuals or groups invalid. Thus, measures should be taken to reduce the impact of factors that interfere with measurement invariance. These measures can be aimed at test construction where, for example, the item or response format can be adjusted to elicit response styles to a lesser degree and items can be selected that have invariance properties across subgroups of participants and across assessment periods.
The Development of Reading Literacy from Early Childhood to Adolescence. Empirical Findings from the Bamberg BiKS Longitudinal Studies
Irene M. Schurtz
- The BiKS research group (“Educational processes, competence development, and selection decisions in preschool- and school age”) founded in 2005 and financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG), was established by a consortium of researchers combining expertise from the disciplines of psychology, education, and sociology. Two longitudinal studies were being conducted by the BiKS research group and followed until 2012. In the first study, a cohort of preschool children was traced until grade 4 in primary school. The second study comprises a cohort of primary school children who were followed until their 9th grade in secondary school. Besides the multidisciplinary perspective, the studies can be well characterized by their broad use of different methods, such as test data, interviews, questionnaires, and live observations of behaviour as well as a consideration of different agents, i.e. students, parents, and teachers. The book focuses on empirical research findings concerning the development of reading literacy from a longitudinal perspective and the chapters cover findings from both longitudinal studies of the BiKS research group. As authors from different academic disciplines have contributed, this volume covers a range of psychological, educational as well as sociological perspectives on causes and effects of stability and interindividual differences in the development of reading literacy.
From Text to Practice - The role of the Bible in daily living of African people today
Masiiwa Ragies Gunda
Solomon Olusola Ademiluka
Solomon B. Nkesiga
- That the Bible is a manual for daily living is attested in almost all Christian denominations, how this role is transformed into practice is clearly an area that remains a contested terrain among Christians. This volume is our modest contribution to looking at the relationship between the Bible and our practices. The central question that the articles in this volume respond to is: how is the Bible related to our daily life? This question is especially important on the African continent where religion appears to be gaining influence. Without taking anything away from western biblical scholars, African biblical scholars must also engage with the question: how do we put into practice the teachings of the Bible? This volume contains papers presented at the International Bible Symposium 2009 in Bamberg (Germany) and additional contributions.
Cosmopolitan Relationships in CouchSurfing : an explorative analysis of a Web 2.0 platform
- In an era marked by massive global interconnectedness and dependencies, questions of world citizenship inevitably resurface and the Internet, as a tool for instant, global communication, is at the center of the contemplation. Scholars have traditionally focused their attention on the rising inequalities associated with globalized
flows of goods and capital and the Internet is framed largely in terms of an empowerment structure with no integral effect on identity. This thesis explores how cosmopolitan community formation on the Internet can work by analyzing CouchSurfing, a hospitality network that makes use of Web 2.0 technology to govern membership and interaction. It creates a stable community of frequent, decentralized interaction. It facilitates cultural learning and supports the establishment of encumberable relationships across cultures.
Removing systematic patterns in returns in a financial market model by artificially intelligent traders
- The unpredictability of returns counts as a stylized fact of financial markets. To reproduce this fact, modelers
usually implement noise terms − a method with several downsides. Above all, systematic patterns are not
eliminated but merely blurred. The present article introduces a model in which systematic patterns are removed
endogenously. This is achieved in a reality-oriented way: Intelligent traders are able to identify patterns and
exploit them. To identify and predict patterns, a very simple artificial neural network is used. As neural network
mimic the cognitive processes of the human brain, this method might be regarded as a quite accurate way of how
traders identify patterns and forecast prices in reality. The simulation experiments show that the artificial traders
exploit patterns effectively and thereby remove them, which ultimately leads to the unpredictability of prices.
Further results relate to the influence of pattern exploiters on market efficiency.
Interactions between the real economy and the stock market
- We develop a simple behavioral macro model to study interactions between the real
economy and the stock market. The real economy is represented by a Keynesian goods
market approach while the setup for the stock market includes heterogeneous speculators.
Using a mixture of analytical and numerical tools we find, for instance, that speculators may
create endogenous boom-bust dynamics in the stock market which, by spilling over into the
real economy, can cause lasting fluctuations in economic activity. However, fluctuations in
economic activity may, by shaping the firms’ fundamental values, also have an impact on
the dynamics of the stock market.
Why a Simple Herding Model May Generate the Stylized Facts of Daily Returns: Explanation and Estimation
- The paper proposes an elementary agent-based asset pricing model that, invoking the
two trader types of fundamentalists and chartists, comprises four features: (i) price determination
by excess demand; (ii) a herding mechanism that gives rise to a macroscopic
adjustment equation for the market fractions of the two groups; (iii) a rush towards fundamentalism
when the price misalignment becomes too large; and (iv) a stronger noise
component in the demand per chartist trader than in the demand per fundamentalist
trader, which implies a structural stochastic volatility in the returns. Combining analytical
and numerical methods, the interaction between these elements is studied in the
phase plane of the price and a majority index. In addition, the model is estimated by
the method of simulated moments, where the choice of the moments reflects the basic
stylized facts of the daily returns of a stock market index. A (parametric) bootstrap
procedure serves to set up an econometric test to evaluate the model’s goodness-of-fit,
which proves to be highly satisfactory. The bootstrap also makes sure that the estimated
structural parameters are well identified.