The goal of this paper is to examine regularities and differences in the application of the three terms assigned expatriate (AE), self-initiated expatriate (SIE) and migrant as the criteria for demarcation are unclear (Al Ariss, 2010; Baruch, Dickmann, Altman, &Bournois, 2010). This research adopts a qualitative approach, using the tool of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). The data base includes 244 definitions from 10 sociological, psychological and business journals. Results indicate that migrant is the umbrella term for AE and SIE. Therefore a SIE is a migrant who executes his dependent work abroad. In contrast to AEs, decision of employment is made by the host country organization and the first formalized action (i. e. job application) is undertaken by the individual.
Retail investors use information provided by mutual fund rating agencies to make investment decisions. Using hand-collected data on Morningstar’s mutual fund ratings we examine the rating migration and closure risk of mutual funds from 2005 to 2012. We differentiate between buy-and-hold investment strategies and dynamic investment strategies. To assess the information content of mutual fund ratings for buy-and-hold investment strategies, we determine the rating migration based on the first and the last mutual fund rating during two-, four-, six-, and eight-year horizons. With respect to dynamic investment strategies, we calculate the number of rating changes per fund during these time horizons on a monthly basis. We find that mutual fund rating persistence is low or even inexistent in particular during longer time periods. Only for lower-rated funds the rating appears to indicate higher risk of fund closure. In addition, mutual funds face a large number of up to 38 monthly rating changes in the eight-year window. Overall, due to the extensive rating migration and the high number of monthly rating changes, we conclude that retail investors barely benefit from using mutual fund ratings.
This study examines responses of 104 sell-side and buy-side security analysts to a survey sent out in order to understand how analysts conduct investment recommendations. Uncertainty about the quality of analysts’ investment recommendations is a major concern for retail investors. Specifically, the information gathering, processing and transferring process appears to be a black box for retail investors. The findings of our study provide insight into analyst-specific characteristics and sources of information used by analysts to undertake firm-specific research. By examining the practitioners’ responses we derive key factors which influence investment recommendations.
The relationship between the Bible and Children in Africa is a topic of highest relevance. This book is treating it in two main perspectives which often are intertwined:
| The exegetical perspective “Children in the Bible” is dealing with the concepts of childhood in biblical texts, asking for example: How are children conceived in different texts. What is their status in family, society and church? What is their relation to God? What is the metaphoric use of childhood in biblical soteriology? What is the function and meaning of calling adult persons “children” (of God, or of the Apostle)?
| The contextual perspective “African children of today and the Bible” is dealing with the different life settings African children find themselves in and how the Bible is present in these life settings. Here the questions for example are: What is the status of children in family and society? How are traditional concepts of childhood changing under the conditions of poverty, HIV/AIDS and violence? How are the ideas and ideals of childhood influenced by the Bible? What is the role of the Bible in child-education? Can children’s rights be established with help of the Bible?
This volume of BiAS 17 is collecting the papers presented at the 2012 BiAS meeting in Gaborone, Botswana, with some additional contributions.
Research on expatriates indicates that substantial differences exist within internationally
active employees. Several typologies of expatriates have been suggested to account for this
diverseness. However, empirical evidence on the accuracy of these classification schemes is
scarce. Based on these research efforts, we introduce a data-based taxonomy of internationally
mobile managers. By means of sequence analysis we derive four career patterns from the
curriculi vitae of 202 German managers. These patterns are built on the dimensions mobility
and duration of the stays abroad. We further show that these patterns differ with regard to
various individual and organizational variables. Based on these findings, we argue that
expatriation career management practices and responsibilities need to be differentiated.
It may be fun to perceive illusions, but the understanding of how they work is even
more stimulating and sustainable: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of
our perceptual apparatus are found—they can specify how the constraints of perception
are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our
perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of
our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power
of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen
sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and
efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by
perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual
illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception.
The present study challenges the notion that judgments of artistic quality are based on stable aesthetic standards. We propose that such standards are a delusion and that judgments of artistic quality are the combined result of exposure, elaboration and discourse. We ran two experiments using elaboration tasks based on the Repeated Evaluation Technique (RET) in which different versions of the Mona Lisa had to be elaborated deeply. During the initial task, either the version known from the Louvre or an alternative version owned by the Prado was elaborated; during the second task, both versions were elaborated in a comparative fashion. After both tasks, multiple blends of the two versions had to be evaluated concerning several aesthetic key variables. Judgments of artistic quality of the blends were significantly different depending on the initially elaborated version of the Mona Lisa indicating experience-based aesthetic processing, which contradicts the notion of stable aesthetic standards.
This volume of BiAS is on theory and practise of biblical tranlation. In 1857, Setswana language produced the first complete Bible in a Bantu language. The second Setswana Bible was published in 1908 – the third in 1970. In each case, different circumstances, factors or contextual frames of reference dictated the need for such a Bible version. The frames converged to cause differences between the meanings of the Setswana Bibles and their sources. This book demonstrates how specific socio-cultural, organisational, linguistic, textual and communicational frames probably influenced the outcome of each Bible. It subsequently presents a framework for analysing existing Bibles and for minimising the occurrence of shifts in prospective translations. The book of Ruth is used as an example while Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) is treated as an ideal source text.
This volume was motivated by the realisation that AICs continue to be a significant player on Zimbabwe’s spiritual market. Members of predominantly Apostolic, but also Zionist, churches are highly visible in both rural and urban areas. Prophets from AICs are constantly in the news, alongside advertising their competence in urban areas. Thus it is high time to bring AICs being an important part of recent social reality in Zimbabwe back into academic focus.
BiAS 15 at the same time is ERA 1 which means that this volume opens a new sub-series to BiAS which is meant to explore religion in Africa in all its manifold manifestation, be it Christian or not.
One of the many questions surrounding Leonardo’s Mona Lisa concerns the landscape visible in the portrait’s background: Does it depict an imagination of Leonardo’s mind, a real world landscape or the motif of a plane canvas that hung in Leonardo’s studio, behind the sitter? By analyzing divergences between the Mona Lisa and her Prado double that was painted in parallel but from another perspective we found mathematical evidence for the motif-canvas hypothesis: The landscape in the Prado version is 10% increased but otherwise nearly identical with the Louvre one, which indicates both painters used the same plane motif-canvas as reference.