Research on expatriates indicates that substantial differences exist within internationally
active employees. Several typologies of expatriates have been suggested to account for this
diverseness. However, empirical evidence on the accuracy of these classification schemes is
scarce. Based on these research efforts, we introduce a data-based taxonomy of internationally
mobile managers. By means of sequence analysis we derive four career patterns from the
curriculi vitae of 202 German managers. These patterns are built on the dimensions mobility
and duration of the stays abroad. We further show that these patterns differ with regard to
various individual and organizational variables. Based on these findings, we argue that
expatriation career management practices and responsibilities need to be differentiated.
Following the final partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) the Ottoman Empire became one of the key destinations for Polish political émigrés. They fled to Istanbul hoping for Ottoman support in their efforts to regain independence. Not only did they promote an independent Polish state, but also were many of them involved in the modernization enterprise of the Ottoman state. During the Second Constitutional Period (1908-1918) Tadeusz Gasztowtt aka Seyfeddin Bey came to prominence as a supporter of the Committee of Union and Progress, journalist, diplomat and soldier. Meanwhile, in the aftermath of WWI he was one of the main organizers of the diplomatic rapprochement between independent Poland and the Ottoman Empire and later, the Republic of Turkey. Given Gasztowtt’s service to a double national cause this paper puts forward a more inclusive category of a Polish Ottoman or an Ottoman Pole to define the overlapping allegiances of this individual.