Saalfeld and Strøm (Chapter 18) show that legislative parties are not only virtually ubiquitous, but also highly institutionalized, typically having well-developed structures of leadership as well as specialization. The authors review various explanations of political parties, including functional theories as well as the explanations based on the incentives of individual legislators. They also discuss challenges to such theories like the influential work of Keith Krehbiel on U.S. Congressional parties. Saalfeld and Strøm argue that it is meaningful to differentiate between various degrees of partyness among parties, and even among coalitions of parties, and review the institutional sources of variations in partyness, including the agenda control available to party leaders and the rewards and sanctions they control.
In this paper, we investigate how RFID and NFC could improve current customs processes to fight illicit trade. During the import process, customs officers have to evaluate which consignments are inspected and, when an inspection takes place, whether intellectual property rights have been infringed. We propose and evaluate new micro processes that leverage the dualexistence of products and logistic units in order to enable easier, faster and more reliable inspection of goods. The impact of the improved processes is analyzed with an example case.
In industries including aerospace, pharmaceuticals, and perishables, as covered in the preceding chapters, counterfeit trade has developed into a severe problem. While established security features such as holograms, micro printings, and chemical markers do not seem to efficiently avert trade in illicit imitation products, RFID technology, with its potential to automate product authentications, may become a powerful tool to enhance brand and product protection. The following contribution aims at structuring the requirement definition for such a system by providing a non-formal attack model, and outlines several principal approaches to RFID-based solutions.
There is an on-going trend towards turning paper documents that store personal information or other valuable data into machine-readable form. An example of this trend is the electronic passport that will become common in the near future. In this paper we show how the security of these machine readable documents could be improved by combining RFID with optical memory devices. We propose integrating an optical memory device into the RFID enabled smart document and present methods how these two storage media can be combined to secure the document against threats like illicit scanning, eavesdropping and forgery. The presented approaches make use of the optical document-to-reader channel which is more secure than the radio-frequency communication interface. To demonstrate the potential of our approaches we show how they could overcomea number of existing security and privacy threats of electronic passports.
The following contribution introduces an approach to avert removal-reapplication attacks of RIFD transponders. This is achieved by tightly coupling security tags with individual objects using object specific data.