- Artikel in einer Zeitschrift / Postprint (94)
The power of liking: Highly sensitive asthetic processing for guiding us through the world
Stella J. Faerber
- Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we
experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent
in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood
and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the
literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes
of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs
on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design
for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic
perspective (test–retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties,
whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex
and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an
essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations
of perceptual input.
Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music
M. Dorothee Augustin
- Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little
about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this
problem by studying people’s word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms:
visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe
aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201). Focusing
on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions
of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay
of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all
art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related
words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct
evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example,
experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the
realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for
different art forms.
Judging body-weight from faces: The height-weight illusion
Tobias M. Schneider
- Abstract. Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve
as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin
colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able
to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor
for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular
challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information
from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We
showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a
lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point.
The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (eg width-to-height ratio) that accompany
changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height ^ weight illusion.
The Mere Exposure effect in the domain of haptics
- Background: Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive
than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research
on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels
(simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice,
F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure
frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the
stone category. Analysis of ‘‘Need for Touch’’ data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests
different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE.
Conclusions/Significance: This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the
haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the
visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.
Aesthetic appraisal of product designs: Independent effects of typicality and arousal
Jan P. L. Schoormans
- Theories differ on how typicality and arousal influence aesthetic appraisal and whether
these processes together interact or have independent effects on aesthetic appraisal.
This research investigates the simultaneous effects of typicality and arousal on aesthetic
appraisal for product designs by manipulating both processes separately: typicality by
prototype deviation and arousal by colour saturation levels. We demonstrate that
typicality has a curvilinear relationship with aesthetic appraisal. Additionally, arousal
has a positive linear relationship with aesthetic appraisal of product designs. Moreover,
arousal can influence aesthetic appraisal independent from typicality.
Online Gaming to Find a New Job – Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
- Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.
Analyzing and managing the impact of cultural behaviour patterns on social capital in multinational IT project teams - A case study approach
Alexander von Stetten
- This paper contributes to a better understanding and to mitigate negative consequences of cultural diversity in multinational IT project teams. Our research explores how culture-specific behaviours impact social capital among team members and how firms can manage the strains. In the existing IS culture literature, culture-specific behaviours are - if at all - traced back to single culture dimensions. In contrast, the approach proposed in this article goes one step further suggesting that it is necessary to combine several culture dimensions to better understand a certain culture-specific behaviour and consequently be able to better manage resulting relationship problems in multinational settings. Conducting exploratory case studies in six multinational IT projects, two exemplary cultural behaviour patterns (face maintenance in India and post-communism in the Czech Republic) are identified, and management actions to avoid project performance problems are derived. The results contribute to a better understanding and management of the negative impact of culturespecific behaviours in IT project teams and corroborate that research based on culture dimensions, such as those conceptualized by Hofstede or House et al., is valuable for understanding multi-country IS projects. The findings in particular suggest that aggregating these dimensions to cultural behaviour patterns improves their explanatory power and consequently the management's capability to mitigate the negative consequences of cultural diversity.
Minority-Ethnic MPs and the Substantive Representation of Minority Interests in the House of Commons, 2005–2011
- Black, Asian and minority-ethnic (BAME) citizens are under-represented in the House of Commons. Nevertheless, the Chamber's ethnic composition has become more reflective of the general population as a result of the 2005 and 2010 parliamentary elections. The paper seeks to map and explain variations in the extent to which BAME Members of Parliament (MPs) use the Chamber to articulate issues relevant to minority constituents. We compare the content of all parliamentary questions for written answer asked by BAME MPs between May 2005 and December 2011 to the questions asked by a matching sample of non-minority legislators. We find that BAME MPs ask more questions relating to the problems and rights of ethnic minorities in, and immigration to, the UK. However, we also find that all British MPs are responsive to the interests of minority constituents where these are geographically concentrated. Building on theoretical predictions derived from (a) models focusing on MPs’ political socialisation and (b) on the electoral incentives they are facing, we discover that the MPs in our sample respond systematically to electoral incentives, especially in the politically salient area of immigration policy. While these findings are in line with an ’electoral-incentives model’, whereas a ‘socialisation model’ is better suited to explain the larger number of questions on the interests of ethnic minorities asked by Labour MPs.
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: A Useful Tool for Assessing Pathological Narcissism? Evidence From Patients With Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Jennifer K. Bosson
Cities of Caesar, Cities of God: Jerusalem and Constantinople in Late Antiquity