To investigate the interrater reliability of stroboscopy evaluations assessed using Poburka's Stroboscopy Evaluation Rating Form (SERF).
Single-factor experiment with repeated measures on the same element.
Evaluations of nine experts pertaining to 68 stroboscopy recordings and 16 SERF variables were analyzed. For the 14 SERF variables possessing interval scale level, interrater reliability was investigated using the intraclass correlations for absolute agreement (ICC-a) and consistency (ICC-c). ICCs-c were computed for both original values and values standardized with respect to raters' means and standard deviations (ipsative values). For the two nominally scaled SERF variables, "vertical level" and "glottal closure" interrater reliability was investigated using kappa coefficients.
For evaluations of single raters, ICCs-a ranged from 0.32 to 0.71, ICCs-c for original values from 0.41 to 0.72, and ICCs-c for ipsative values from 0.43 to 0.72. For mean evaluations of two raters, the corresponding values were 0.48 to 0.83 for ICCs-a, 0.58 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for original values, and 0.60 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for ipsative values. The interval scale variables with the lowest interrater reliabilities were phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity. The kappa coefficients for vertical level and glottal closure were 0.15 and 0.38, respectively.
The interrater reliabilities for vertical level, glottal closure, phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity are so low that these variables should not be assessed via stroboscopy. For the remaining variables, adequate reliability can be obtained by aggregating evaluations from at least two raters.
Decisionmaking within the Security Council increasingly involves delegation to subsidiary bodies. Drawing on modern institutional theory, this article examines the effects of the emergent system of divided labor within the al-Qaeda/Taliban sanctions regime. The article first looks at the political economy of the process of listing individuals and private entities as sanctions targets. Second, it explores the distinct functions performed by the bodies of the sanctions regime; namely, the Security Council, the AQT Sanctions Committee, the Office of the Ombudsperson, and an expert body. Third, it analyzes the resulting incentive structures in three successive stages of regime development. The article concludes that the sanctions regime constitutes a surprisingly well-advanced model of how to commit even powerful states to rule-based governance without depriving them of their capability to adopt political decisions.
In the German speaking part of Europe Organizational Communication as we know it from the North American Countries seem to be unknown. A closer look reveals that studies in the research field of Organizational Communication in fact do exist also in German speaking academia but the studies are not usually covered by this term. Since the 1990s the situation has been undergoing a change; Organizational Communication has gradually developed from a discrete into a distinct area of research especially in Communication Studies. Though the concept of Organizational Communication has started to spread in German scientific literature during the last decade, the identity of the field is not quite the same as in the Anglo-Saxon literature. In some cases the term Organizational Communication proves as a simple replacement of Public Relations. In this situation theory may help to strengthen the identity of the field on either side of the Atlantic. Whereas the idea of Communication Constitutes Organization is actually prominent in North America European scholars are deeply influenced by the ideas of Niklas Luhmann who conceives decisions as the typical form of organizational communication. With the help of this theory it is possible to observe both, the inside and the outside of an organization and thereby overcoming the difference between Public Relations and Organizational Communication in favor of an integrated concept of Organizational Communication.
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated.
Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed.
Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.