Recent studies have analyzed social and dimensional comparisons simultaneously in order to consider their impact on students' academic self-concept (e.g., Chiu, 2012). Thereby, social comparisons refer to comparisons with the achievement level of students' classmates, whereas dimensional comparisons comprise comparisons between students' individual achievements across different domains. This paper analyzes whether both achievement comparisons influence students' subject-interest in mathematics and English (as a first foreign language). The analyses are based on N = 1390 German fifth and sixth grade students who participated in the BiKS-8-14 longitudinal study. Using multi-level analyses, results indicate that students' competences influence their mathematical and English subject-interests, demonstrating the typical pattern of social and dimensional comparisons. Further, analyses reveal mediation effects by subject-specific grades and self-concepts. These findings also apply for the development of students' subject-interest from grade 5 to grade 6. Results are discussed with respect to their implications concerning theories of achievement comparisons and interest development.
– This paper proposes a new research agenda for information technology (IT) outsourcing,motivated by the belief that the social capital concept enables IT outsourcing researchers to capture more of the nuances of the client–vendor relationship in IT outsourcing arrangements.
– The paper builds a comprehensive framework of social capital based on Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) to examine the IT outsourcing life cycle. Past research on IT outsourcing is examined applying the parameters of the framework to identify issues that have been addressed in research on IT outsourcing and to uncover the gaps in past research.
– The social capital framework is applied to IT outsourcing which suggests new avenues for future outsourcing research.
– While past research has identified success factors for IT outsourcing, a significant number of outsourcing arrangement still fail to meet expectations. The research agenda presented in this paper encourages an examination of IT outsourcing from a different perspective to determine how to successfully manage IT outsourcing.
– The paper provides a new framework that is useful for identifying the relationships among past research in IT outsourcing as well as for identifying potential topics for future research.
In an experiment, we systematically tested the risk tolerance for trading stock shares that vary in the initial
price of the shares. Persons inexperienced with the stock market had to set the selling points for 60 stocks in the
case of (a) decreasing or (b) rising prices. First, a stronger risk aversion for falling compared to rising prices was
obtained. Second, the experiment revealed a dramatic increase in risk tolerance the lower the buying prices of the
stocks were; nearly perfectly following a power function (Pearson-R’s>.93). Furthermore, it seemed very difficult for
persons to grasp the consequences of share price neglect, namely that the initial share price has a significant impact
on the readiness to take higher risks, whether in a positive or negative direction. Therefore, we are also referring to
it as a “hidden risk tolerance”. This paper offers insights into irrational decision making in trading stocks. It allows
the formation of estimates regarding trading volume and share price potential on the basis of the initial share price.Furthermore, it provides clues for the consequent reduction of risk-seeking behavior.