In addition to catastrophe and operational risks like e.g. the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center airlines are exposed to substantial capital market risks. This study examines the cases of three major airlines including Lufthansa, United Airlines, and Qantas. Their risk profiles are analyzed with respect to commodity and exchange rate risks by applying the “Earnings at Risk”-concept to the profit and loss statements of the year 2003. Furthermore, potential hedging strategies are explored. It turns out that airlines are especially sensitive to movements of the oil price. However, hedges can provide (partial) protection against adverse movements of the risk factors.
This paper addresses the capital requirements based on the RiskMetrics™ framework and the BIS standard model. A case study is developed which shows that the capital requirements can be reduced by applying the more accurate RiskMetrics™ framework. Furthermore it gives an overview of the capital requirement rules for credit risk and operational risk in the Basel II Accord.
This research analyzes the convergence properties of a discrete implementation of the Hull and White two-factor model. It compares caplet prices using both the discrete valuation algorithm and the analytic solution. Quality of the results depends crucially on the properties of the model parameters. The valuation algorithm may be improved while preserving its computational efficiency. An application of the modified algorithm to the caplet pricing problem indicates that substantially reduced valuation errors.
With the expansion of electronic exchanges and the nearly universal access to the Internet, it has become possible for retail investors to buy and sell exchange-traded derivative contracts from their desktops. In Europe this ability has even been extended to allow small investors to purchase over-the-counter exotic option contracts through the Internet. In this article, Muck analyzes the pricing of a variety of web-traded exotic instruments, available in this „market.” As one would expect, the contracts are overpriced on average, relative to theoretical valuations based on exchange-traded options on the same underlying DAX index. A second hypothesis, that overpricing diminishes as the contracts approach maturity receives a little less support.
This research analyzes tradingstrategies with derivatives when there are several assets and risk factors. We investigate portfolio improvement if investors have full and partialaccess to the derivativesmarkets, i.e. situations in which derivatives are written on some but not all stocks or risk factors traded on the market. The focus is on markets with jump risk. In these markets the choice of optimal exposures to jump and diffusion risk is linked. In a numerical application we study the potential benefit from adding derivatives to the market. It turns out that e.g. diffusion correlation and volatility or jump sizes may have a significant impact on the benefit of a new derivative product even if market prices of risk remain unchanged. Given the structure of risk investors may have different preferences for making risk factors tradable. Utility gains provided by new derivatives may be both increasing or decreasing depending on the type of contract added.