A Place for Humility examines the links between Dickinson’s and Whitman’s poetic projects within the context of developing nineteenth-century environmental thought.
Dickinson and Whitman developed their environmentally suggestive poetics at roughly the same historical moment, a time when a major shift occurred in their culture’s general view of the natural world. Precisely when they achieved poetic maturity, an existing countervoice to America’s dominant attitude toward nature was gaining strength; as Max Oelschlaeger observed, “a shift transpired from viewing wild nature as merely a valuable resource [...] and obstacle [...] toward a conception of wilderness as an end in its own right and an endangered species in need of preservation” (The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology 4). This book examines Dickinson’s and Whitman’s poetry in conjunction with this important change in environmental perception, and explores the links between their poetic projects in the context of nineteenth-century environmental thought from the perspective of a modern ecological awareness that makes such a reading possible. It argues that both Dickinson’s and Whitman’s poetry participate in this shift in different but related ways, and that this interlocking involvement with their culture’s growing environmental sensibilities constitutes an important connection between their disparate bodies of work. There may be few direct links between Dickinson’s “letter to the World” (Fr519) and Whitman’s “language experiment” (American Primer vii), but through a web of environmentally oriented discourses, their poetry engages in a cultural conversation about the natural world and the possibilities and limitations of writing about it—a conversation in which their thematic and formal choices meet on a number of levels.
In an experiment, we systematically tested the risk tolerance for trading stock shares that vary in the initial
price of the shares. Persons inexperienced with the stock market had to set the selling points for 60 stocks in the
case of (a) decreasing or (b) rising prices. First, a stronger risk aversion for falling compared to rising prices was
obtained. Second, the experiment revealed a dramatic increase in risk tolerance the lower the buying prices of the
stocks were; nearly perfectly following a power function (Pearson-R’s>.93). Furthermore, it seemed very difficult for
persons to grasp the consequences of share price neglect, namely that the initial share price has a significant impact
on the readiness to take higher risks, whether in a positive or negative direction. Therefore, we are also referring to
it as a “hidden risk tolerance”. This paper offers insights into irrational decision making in trading stocks. It allows
the formation of estimates regarding trading volume and share price potential on the basis of the initial share price.Furthermore, it provides clues for the consequent reduction of risk-seeking behavior.
We present a morphological texture contrast (MTC) operator that allows detection of textural and non-texture regions in images. We show that in contrast to other approaches, the MTC discriminates between texture details and isolated features and does not extend borders of texture regions. A comparison with other methods used for texture detection is provided. Using the ideas underlying the MTC operator, we develop a complementary operator called morphological feature contrast (MFC) that allows extraction of isolated features while not being confused by texture details. We illustrate an application of the MFC operator to extraction of isolated objects such as individual trees or buildings that should be distinguished from forests or urban centers. We also propose an MFC based detector of isolated linear features and compare it with an alternative approach used for detection of edges and lines in cluttered scenes. We furthermore derive an extended version of the MFC that can be directly applied to vector-valued images.
The study considers some of the factors determining budget balance. In particular, it
investigates the relationship between budget balance and inflation. The analysis focuses on
European states in the period between 1999 and 2007, and concludes that the relationship
between budget balance and inflation is not demonstrable. In the literature, attempts to
quantify the relationship between the two factors have faced severe difficulties.
Inflation influences both the revenue side and the expenditure side of the budget, often
increasing one and reducing the other at the same time. These effects might balance each
other out, leaving the budget balance unchanged.