Within the ideal model of pragma-dialectics discussants act rationally and without any time limits. A rhetorical model of argumentation can be derived by including human restrictions. In this practical model (i.e. not ideal model) discussants have to resolve a difference of opinion within limited time, on the basis of incomplete information, in the awareness of their restricted rationality, and by means of a non-perfect language. They try to maximize their long-term success in persuading the audience under the given limitations. Rhetoric provides means for coping with these limitations by way of following a practically applied rationality.
To investigate the interrater reliability of stroboscopy evaluations assessed using Poburka's Stroboscopy Evaluation Rating Form (SERF).
Single-factor experiment with repeated measures on the same element.
Evaluations of nine experts pertaining to 68 stroboscopy recordings and 16 SERF variables were analyzed. For the 14 SERF variables possessing interval scale level, interrater reliability was investigated using the intraclass correlations for absolute agreement (ICC-a) and consistency (ICC-c). ICCs-c were computed for both original values and values standardized with respect to raters' means and standard deviations (ipsative values). For the two nominally scaled SERF variables, "vertical level" and "glottal closure" interrater reliability was investigated using kappa coefficients.
For evaluations of single raters, ICCs-a ranged from 0.32 to 0.71, ICCs-c for original values from 0.41 to 0.72, and ICCs-c for ipsative values from 0.43 to 0.72. For mean evaluations of two raters, the corresponding values were 0.48 to 0.83 for ICCs-a, 0.58 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for original values, and 0.60 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for ipsative values. The interval scale variables with the lowest interrater reliabilities were phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity. The kappa coefficients for vertical level and glottal closure were 0.15 and 0.38, respectively.
The interrater reliabilities for vertical level, glottal closure, phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity are so low that these variables should not be assessed via stroboscopy. For the remaining variables, adequate reliability can be obtained by aggregating evaluations from at least two raters.
Decisionmaking within the Security Council increasingly involves delegation to subsidiary bodies. Drawing on modern institutional theory, this article examines the effects of the emergent system of divided labor within the al-Qaeda/Taliban sanctions regime. The article first looks at the political economy of the process of listing individuals and private entities as sanctions targets. Second, it explores the distinct functions performed by the bodies of the sanctions regime; namely, the Security Council, the AQT Sanctions Committee, the Office of the Ombudsperson, and an expert body. Third, it analyzes the resulting incentive structures in three successive stages of regime development. The article concludes that the sanctions regime constitutes a surprisingly well-advanced model of how to commit even powerful states to rule-based governance without depriving them of their capability to adopt political decisions.
Two reading literacy/text comprehension tests with different demands (on-line comprehension vs. memory-based comprehension) were administered to 6,104 15-year-old students from all German states and school types. The combined and specific effects of proximal and distal variables from small-scale psychological research as well as from large-scale educational studies on each text comprehension measure were investigated.
Metacognitive knowledge, decoding speed, and the number of books at home (as an indicator for family background) were found to have specific and large effects on on-line comprehension and accounted for 46 percent of the variance with the highest effects for metacognition. Metacognitive knowledge was also highly predictive when the effects of specific prior knowledge and thematic interest on memory-based text comprehension were estimated simultaneously.
In addition, students who showed relative strength in building up a coherent representation of specific texts (memory-based text comprehension) were characterised by high amounts of prior knowledge and thematic interest thereby underlining the important of these student characteristics for learning.