It is a long-standing debate, whether software that is developed as open source is generally of higher quality than proprietary software.
Although the open source community has grown immensely during the last decade, there is still no clear answer.
Service-oriented software and middleware tends to rely on highly complex and interrelated standards and frameworks.
Thus, it is questionable if small and loosely coupled teams, as typical in open source software development, can compete with major vendors.
Here, we focus on a central part of service-oriented software systems, i.e., process engines for service orchestration, and compare open source and proprietary solutions.
We use the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and compare standard conformance and its impact on language expressiveness in terms of workflow pattern support of eight engines.
The results show that, although the top open source engines are on par with their proprietary counterparts, in general proprietary engines perform better.
The errors in BPEL processes that are only detected at runtime are expensive to fix. Several modelers and process engines for BPEL exist, and the standard defines basic static analysis (SA) rules as a detection mechanism for invalid processes, but the actual conformance of BPEL modelers and engines regarding these rules is unknown. We propose to develop test cases to evaluate the conformance of BPEL modelers and engines regarding static analysis. The evaluation results enable decision makers to identify and use the most conformant engine and modeler that detect errors before runtime and therefore reduce costs
Service orchestration languages, like the Web Services
Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), have been
frequently used to provide an implementation platform for
model-driven development approaches. As avoidance of
vendor lock-in and portability of process definitions are
central aims of BPEL, most approaches claim to support
a large set of different runtime environments. But, even
though today various runtimes for BPEL are available, every runtime implements a different language subset, thus
hampering portability. Our idea is to improve this situation by using techniques, the Web Services Interoperability
Organization (WS-I) has used to improve services interoperability. We describe a portability profile for BPEL that
can detect portability issues in process definitions. Using
this profile, we evaluate the portability of BPEL mappings
used in several model-driven development approaches.
A key promise of process languages based on open
standards, such as the
Web Services Business Process Execution Language, is the avoidance of vendor lock-in through the portability of process definitions among runtime environments. Despite the fact that today, various runtimes claim to support
this language, every runtime implements a different subset,
thus hampering portability and locking in their users. In this paper, we intend to improve this situation by enabling the measurement of the degree of portability of process definitions. This helps developers to assess their process definitions and to decide if it is feasible to invest in the effort of porting a process definition to another runtime. We define several software quality metrics that quantify the degree of portability a process definition provides from different viewpoints. We validate these metrics theoretically with two validation frameworks and
empirically with a large set of process definitions coming from several process libraries.
More than five years have passed since the final release of the long-desired OASIS standard of a process language for Web Services orchestration, the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). The aim of this standard was to establish a universally accepted Web Services orchestration language that forms a core part of service-oriented architectures and, because of standardization,
avoids vendor lock-in. By now, several fully conformant engines should have arrived in the market. It is our aim to shed light on this situation and to provide a comprehensive picture of the
current state of BPEL upport. We present an evaluation of the standard conformance of five open source BPEL engines.
To obtain these results we have developed betsy, a tool that allows for a fully-automatic standard conformance testing of BPEL engines. The results demonstrate that full standard
conformance in contemporary engines is still far from given.
Service orchestrations are a powerful tool for
implementing intra– and interorganizational business processes
that base on services. Several heterogeneous orchestration
languages can be found in contemporary IT landscapes. While
the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL)
is the de facto standard, others gain attention, including Windows
Workflow (WF) in the .NET segment. When integrating
orchestrations, incompatibilities between them can easily arise.
In this paper, we investigate an automated Petri net–based
integration between BPEL and WF to solve these issues with
behavioral adapter services. We provide a mapping of WF to
Open Workflow Nets (oWFNs) and implement it in a compiler.
Thereby, we integrate our approach with existing approaches
for BPEL and adapter synthesis and validate the integration
with a standards–based case study using the two languages.
More than five years have passed since the final release of the long-desired OASIS standard of a process language for web service orchestration, the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). The aim of this standard is to establish a universally accepted orchestration language that forms a core part of current service-oriented architectures and, because of standardisation, avoids vendor lock-in. High expectations, in academia and practice alike, have been set on it. By now, several fully conformant and highly scalable engines should have arrived in the market. The perception of many however, is that standard conformance in current engines is far from given. It is our aim to shed light on this situation. In this study, we present the tool betsy, a BPEL Engine Test System that allows for a fully-automatic assessment of the standard conformance of a given BPEL engine. We use it to examine the five most important open source BPEL engines available today. Betsy comes with a large set of engineindependent conformance test cases for assessing BPEL standard conformance. This enables us to give a view of the state of the art in BPEL support.
Business-To-Business Integration (B2Bi) is a key mechanism for enterprises to gain competitive advantage. However, developing B2Bi applications is far from trivial. Inter alia, agreement among integration partners about the business documents and the control flow of business document exchanges as well as applying suitable communication technologies for overcoming heterogeneous IT landscapes are major challenges. At the same time, choreography languages such as ebXML BPSS (ebBP), orchestration languages such as WS-BPEL and Web Services are promising to provide the foundations for seamless interactions among business partners. Automatically translating choreography agreements of integration partners into partner-specific orchestrations is an obvious idea for ensuring conformance of orchestration models to choreography models. Moreover, the application of such model-driven development methods facilitates productivity and cost-effectiveness whereas applying a service oriented architecture (SOA) based on WS-BPEL and Web Services leverages standardization and decoupling. By now, the realization of QoS attributes has not yet received the necessary attention that makes such approaches suitable for B2Bi. In this report, we describe a proof-of-concept implementation of the translation of ebBP choreographies into WS-BPEL orchestrations that respects B2Bi-relevant QoS attributes.