Menschliches Sprachverstehen zeichnet sich durch ein hohes Maß an Flexibilität und Kreativität aus. Um Texten eine sinnvolle Bedeutung zu verleihen, sind wir weder angewiesen auf korrekte grammatikalische Formen, noch auf bekannte Wörter. Aufgrund einzelfallanalytischer Betrachtungen von Protokollen der Introspektion während der Konfrontation mit unbestimmten Texten wird ein schema-theoretisches Modell des Textverstehens entwickelt. Dieses Modell beschreibt Textverstehen als einen Prozess des aktiven Aufbaus, Umbaus und der Ausgestaltung komplexer kognitiver Schemata.
We investigated whether art is distinguished from other real world objects in human cognition, in that art allows for a special memorial representation and identification based on artists' specific stylistic appearances. Testing art-experienced viewers, converging empirical evidence from three experiments, which have proved sensitive to addressing the question of initial object recognition, suggest that identification of visual art is at the subordinate level of the producing artist. Specifically, in a free naming task it was found that art-objects as opposed to non-art-objects were most frequently named with subordinate level categories, with the artist's name as the most frequent category (Experiment I). In a category-verification task (Experiment 2), art-objects were recognized faster than non-art-objects on the subordinate level with the artist's name. In a conceptual priming task, subordinate primes of artists' names facilitated matching responses to art-objects but subordinate primes did not facilitate responses to non-art-objects (Experiment 3). Collectively, these results suggest that the artist's name has a special status in the memorial representation of visual art and serves as a predominant entry point in recognition in art perception.
In the post-proceedings of the Workshop "Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments" a selection of research papers is presented where the topic of visibility is addressed in different contexts. Visibility governs information selection in geographic environments as well as in information spaces and in cognition. The users of social media navigate in information spaces and at the same time, as embodied agents, they move in geographic environments. Both activities follow a similar type of information economy in which decisions by individuals or groups require a highly selective filtering to avoid information overload. In this context, visibility refers to the fact that in social processes some actors, topics or places are more salient than others. Formal notions of visibility include the centrality measures from social network analysis or the plethora of web page ranking methods. Recently, comparable approaches have been proposed to analyse activities in geographic environments: Place Rank, for instance, describes the social visibility of urban places based on the temporal sequence of tourist visit patterns. The workshop aimed to bring together researchers from AI, Geographic Information Science, Cognitive Science, and other disciplines who are interested in understanding how the different forms of visibility in information spaces and geographic environments relate to one another and how the results from basic research can be used to improve spatial search engines, geo-recommender systems or location-based social networks.
Recent studies on conspiracy theories employ standardized questionnaires, thus neglecting their narrative qualities by reducing them to mere statements. Recipients are considered as consumers only. Two empirical studies—a conventional survey (n = 63) and a study using the method of narrative construction (n = 30)—which were recently conducted by the authors of this paper—suggest that the truth about conspiracy theories is more complex. Given a set of statements about a dramatic historic event (in our case 9/11) that includes official testimonies, allegations to a conspiracy and extremely conspiratorial statements, the majority of participants created a narrative of 9/11 they deemed plausible that might be considered a conspiracy theory. The resulting 30 idiosyncratic stories imply that no clear distinction between official story and conspiratorial narrative is possible any more when the common approach of questionnaires is abandoned. Based on these findings, we present a new theoretical and methodological approach which acknowledges conspiracy theories as a means of constructing and communicating a set of personal values. While broadening the view upon such theories, we stay compatible with other approaches that have focused on extreme theory types. In our view, accepting conspiracy theories as a common, regulative and possibly benign phenomenon, we will be better able to understand why some people cling to immunized, racist and off-wall stories—and others do not.
Irritation is not definable by outside-characteristics but is elicited by inconsistencies between internal states [Zschocke, 2006, Munich, Fink]. The principle of exclusivity calls for only one clear interpretation at a time thus explaining why we perceive a sudden switch between interpretations when bi-stable pictures are perceived. Zeki [2004, Consciousness and Cognition, 13(1), 173-196] defines ambiguity accordingly as the existence of multiple possibilities or schemata in contrast to uncertainty. We extracted several categories of ambiguity out of multi-dimensional semantic scales gathered for the perception of modern art that go beyond ambiguity as a simple “switch” of interpretations. Examples out of experiential reports further indicate that contradictory elements can be found on several levels of processing including imagination, association and simulation processes. We propose that modern art is capable of fusing unsolvable contradictions in various ways. Several theories suggest that elaboration of these ambiguities [Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(6-7), 15-51] and specifically the reduction of prediction-errors [Van de Cruys and Wagemans, 2011, i-Perception, 2(9), 1035-1062] are linked to aesthetic appreciation which underlines the relevance of looking closer at the several ways of irritation in art.
Ramachandran V S, Hirstein W, 1999 "The science of art. A neurological theory of aesthetic experience" Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 15-51
Van de Cruys S, Wagemans J, 2011 "Putting reward in art: A tentative prediction error account of visual art" i-Perception 2 1035-1062
Zeki S, 2004 "The neurology of ambiguity" Consciousness and Cognition 13 173-196
Zschocke N, 2006 Der irritierte Blick: Kunstrezeption und Aufmerksamkeit (Munich: Fink)
Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.
Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we
experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent
in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood
and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the
literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes
of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs
on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design
for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic
perspective (test–retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties,
whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex
and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an
essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations
of perceptual input.
A central prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of art in psychological terms is to investigate
the nature of the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes. Building on a study by Augustin, Leder,
Hutzler, and Carbon (2008) the current ERP study examined the neural time course of two central aspects
of representational art, one of which is closely related to object- and scene perception, the other of
which is art-specific: content and style. We adapted a paradigm that has repeatedly been employed
in psycholinguistics and that allows one to examine the neural time course of two processes in terms
of when sufficient information is available to allow successful classification. Twenty-two participants
viewed pictures that systematically varied in style and content and conducted a combined go/nogo dual
choice task. The dependent variables of interest were the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP) and the
N200 effect. Analyses of both measures support the notion that in the processing of art style follows
content, with style-related information being available at around 224ms or between 40 and 94ms later
than content-related information. The paradigm used here offers a promising approach to further explore
the time course of art perception, thus helping to unravel the