Menschliches Sprachverstehen zeichnet sich durch ein hohes Maß an Flexibilität und Kreativität aus. Um Texten eine sinnvolle Bedeutung zu verleihen, sind wir weder angewiesen auf korrekte grammatikalische Formen, noch auf bekannte Wörter. Aufgrund einzelfallanalytischer Betrachtungen von Protokollen der Introspektion während der Konfrontation mit unbestimmten Texten wird ein schema-theoretisches Modell des Textverstehens entwickelt. Dieses Modell beschreibt Textverstehen als einen Prozess des aktiven Aufbaus, Umbaus und der Ausgestaltung komplexer kognitiver Schemata.
We investigated whether art is distinguished from other real world objects in human cognition, in that art allows for a special memorial representation and identification based on artists' specific stylistic appearances. Testing art-experienced viewers, converging empirical evidence from three experiments, which have proved sensitive to addressing the question of initial object recognition, suggest that identification of visual art is at the subordinate level of the producing artist. Specifically, in a free naming task it was found that art-objects as opposed to non-art-objects were most frequently named with subordinate level categories, with the artist's name as the most frequent category (Experiment I). In a category-verification task (Experiment 2), art-objects were recognized faster than non-art-objects on the subordinate level with the artist's name. In a conceptual priming task, subordinate primes of artists' names facilitated matching responses to art-objects but subordinate primes did not facilitate responses to non-art-objects (Experiment 3). Collectively, these results suggest that the artist's name has a special status in the memorial representation of visual art and serves as a predominant entry point in recognition in art perception.
What’s wrong with art fakes? We tested effects of art “forgery” on aesthetic appreciation and the quality of paintings in a multidimensional manner comprising cognitive and emotional variables: When naïve participants were exposed to replicas of works by renowned artists, information about the alleged authenticity status had a major effect on the perceived quality of the painting, and even on artist-associated values such as artist talent. All these variables were negatively influenced when depictions were labeled as copies compared to identical ones labeled as originals. Our findings show the importance of symbolic and personal values as modulators in art appreciation.