Empathy measures that involve both cognitive and affective aspects of empathy are scarce. The aim of the work presented in this paper was to develop an instrument for the assessment of both aspects of dispositional empathy in children aged eight to fourteen, based on a variety of existing measures and results from the validation of a first preliminary version.
Dieses Buch begleitet das gleichnamige Forschungskolloquium der Frauenbeauftragten der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg. Im Sommersemester 2008 ins Leben gerufen, bietet es seitdem jungen Wissenschaftlerinnen Gelegenheit, ihre Forschungsprojekte in der Universität unter Beteiligung der Öffentlichkeit vorzustellen und Vortragspraxis zu sammeln, sich zu vernetzen und die Vorträge zu publizieren. An der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg gedeiht eine bunte Forschungslandschaft. Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen zeigen als forschende Frauen in den vielfältigsten Bereichen Engagement, Tatkraft und Profil. Dieser Band beinhaltet fünf hochinteressante Beiträge aus unterschiedlichen Fächerkulturen. Zwei Untersuchungen betreffen soziologische Phänomene wie Einschulungsentscheidung aus Sicht der Eltern unter dem Aspekt von Zurückstellung und deren Definition (Wehner) bzw. den Umgang der Deutschen mit der Möglichkeit privater Altersvorsorge (Honekamp). Zwei Aufsätze kommen aus dem Bereich der Literaturwissenschaft. Während der eine der monologischen und dialogischen Subjektivität am Beispiel einer Romanfigur von Ian McEwan (Kehler) gewidmet ist, beschäftigt sich der andere mit der Identitätskonstruktion marokkanisch-sephardischer Juden in zwei Romanen von Esther Bendahan und Mois Benarroch (Liebl). Ein weiterer Beitrag beleuchtet aus psychologischer Perspektive die Dynamiken der ästhetischen Beurteilung von Konsumgütern.
The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such
as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face
stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research
literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research, and help to design future
adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the
processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information.
The review systematizes studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which
includes three dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of
research.These dimensions comprise (1) the specificity of adapting face information, e.g.,
identity, gender, or age aspects of the material to be adapted to (2) aspects of timing (e.g.,
the sustainability of adaptation effects) and (3) transfer relations between face images
presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different
identities).The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different
dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.
Previous research has revealed a strong relationship between mere visual facial cues and body weight.
They can be exploited to validly judge the weight of the human body. We tested to what extent observers
are able to judge body weight and height on the basis of same-ethnicity and different-ethnicity faces.
Caucasian and Asian observers saw Caucasian and Asian faces and estimated the person’s weight and
height – merely on the basis of greyscale photographs of the face. These height and weight estimates
were influenced by ethnocentric specifics of familiar face proportion and face–body relationship. Ownethnicity
weight estimations showed higher accuracy than foreign-ethnicity estimations. Observers
ignored the changed base-rate for weight of other-culture faces in a culture-egocentric fashion. Height
judgments, in contrast, reflect a higher degree of sophistication. A bias toward the own, familiar body
proportion was visible here, especially for Japanese observers—however, the height judgments showed
that observers were able to incorporate the other-ethnicity height proportion to some extent
Abstract. Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve
as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin
colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able
to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor
for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular
challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information
from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We
showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a
lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point.
The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (eg width-to-height ratio) that accompany
changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height ^ weight illusion.
We present a framework for cognitive modeling of esthetic decision making based on dynamic prototypes. Starting point of our work
is empirical evidence which shows that subjects’ initial ratings of attractiveness of objects can be influenced by adapting them to new,
typically more innovative objects. The framework consists of three steps: (1) Estimating an initial prototype from the ratings, (2) adapting
the prototype due to the impact of the new objects, and (3) predicting the attractiveness ratings for subsequently presented object by
their similarity to the adapted prototype. The framework allows representation of prototypes and objects as feature vectors containing
metrical or categorial attributes or as structural representations. Within the framework, a variety of similarity measures and similarity-torating
mappings can be explored to gain more precise insight into the cognitive processes underlying esthetical appreciations. We instantiated
the framework for a first set of data obtained in a psychological experiment. In this experiment subjects rated the attractiveness of
an initial set of chairs which varied in length of the backrest and the saturation of the color. Subjects then were adapted to a new set of
chairs with extreme values on both dimensions. Finally, subjects again rated the initial objects. The framework was instantiated with an
e-function to model the non-linear effects of variations in length and saturation on the judgements. Although there were only 25 data
points per subject, we got satisfying results in predicting the shift of esthetical judgements due to adaptation to novel stimuli.