As part of a long-term project to investigate the cultural history of the Nasca region in southern Peru, the famous
Nasca lines, or geoglyphs, have been documented since 1997 in a joint effort by archaeologists and geomatic engineers. The
project aims on the one hand at a new interpretation of the geoglyphs based on solid field data. On the other hand, it is thought
of as a contribution to the preservation of the geoglyphs. Prior to the start of the project, the geoglyphs had never been
adequately recorded. In a new approach that combined aerial photogrammetry with archaeological fieldwork, we thoroughly
documented more than 1 500 geoglyphs in the vicinity of Palpa. While different aspects of this work have been described in
previous reports, this paper offers an overview of the technical procedures from data acquisition to processing, modeling, and
The main objective of this dissertation is to provide theoretical explanations and empirical evidence for the causes and consequences of technostress. The results of this dissertation posit that the IT usage context matters. This means that users perceive technostress when using IT for work and for private purposes; but the causes and consequences differ for both contexts. In the case of using IT for work, technological characteristics and techno-stressors cause employees to feel exhausted at the end of their work day, feel dissatisfied with their job, and develop intentions to quit their job. In the case of IT usage for private purposes, social stressors are identified as new sort of stressor influencing psychological and behavioral strain even more strongly than techno-stressors. Although users of a stressful IT become dissatisfied with its usage and develop intentions to stop using it, the dissertation finds that switching to and using one or more alternatives can be even more stressful. In this context, this dissertation also emphasizes the influence of additional variables, such as user personality on technology characteristics, stressors and strain, concluding that the perception of stressors and strain varies among individuals.
Bearing these conclusions in mind, IT can be seen as a double-edged sword: using IT can be a source of fun, but potentially also a source of stress to others and to ourselves.
While numerous studies into phenomena of intergroup conflict, outgroup derogation and similar negative relations between groups exist, there is a noticeable absence in the literature. Safe from some contributions on enemy-images in the late 1980ies, hardly any literature on enemies or enmity as a concept exists. Given Carl Schmitt’s (1932) argument for the distinction between friends and enemies as being particularly important for political thoughts and behaviours, this is somewhat surprising. However, even within neighbouring disciplines, such as philosophy or sociology, a similar lack of debates on enmity can be found. The main goal of this paper is twofold, firstly it will present an overview of the existing literature on enmity (e.g. Holt, 1989; Wiseman & Duck, 1995; Zur, 1991), providing a tentative definition of ‘enemies’ from a psychological perspective and discussing the predominant historical context of psychological studies on ‘enemies’, namely the decline of the Soviet Union as a major ‘global enemy’ to the ‘Western World’. Given there is no similar treatment of contemporary conflicts, e.g. with regards to Political Islam, it will secondly pose the question whether a clearly defined concept of enmity can add to our understanding of conflict beyond existing models of social identity and intergroup hate (e.g. Reicher, Haslam & Rath, 2008) or social cognition and contempt towards the outgroup (e.d. Cuddy, Fiske / Glick, 2008).
The goal of this paper is to examine regularities and differences in the application of the three terms assigned expatriate (AE), self-initiated expatriate (SIE) and migrant as the criteria for demarcation are unclear (Al Ariss, 2010; Baruch, Dickmann, Altman, &Bournois, 2010). This research adopts a qualitative approach, using the tool of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). The data base includes 244 definitions from 10 sociological, psychological and business journals. Results indicate that migrant is the umbrella term for AE and SIE. Therefore a SIE is a migrant who executes his dependent work abroad. In contrast to AEs, decision of employment is made by the host country organization and the first formalized action (i. e. job application) is undertaken by the individual.
Retail investors use information provided by mutual fund rating agencies to make investment decisions. Using hand-collected data on Morningstar’s mutual fund ratings we examine the rating migration and closure risk of mutual funds from 2005 to 2012. We differentiate between buy-and-hold investment strategies and dynamic investment strategies. To assess the information content of mutual fund ratings for buy-and-hold investment strategies, we determine the rating migration based on the first and the last mutual fund rating during two-, four-, six-, and eight-year horizons. With respect to dynamic investment strategies, we calculate the number of rating changes per fund during these time horizons on a monthly basis. We find that mutual fund rating persistence is low or even inexistent in particular during longer time periods. Only for lower-rated funds the rating appears to indicate higher risk of fund closure. In addition, mutual funds face a large number of up to 38 monthly rating changes in the eight-year window. Overall, due to the extensive rating migration and the high number of monthly rating changes, we conclude that retail investors barely benefit from using mutual fund ratings.
This study examines responses of 104 sell-side and buy-side security analysts to a survey sent out in order to understand how analysts conduct investment recommendations. Uncertainty about the quality of analysts’ investment recommendations is a major concern for retail investors. Specifically, the information gathering, processing and transferring process appears to be a black box for retail investors. The findings of our study provide insight into analyst-specific characteristics and sources of information used by analysts to undertake firm-specific research. By examining the practitioners’ responses we derive key factors which influence investment recommendations.