In an experiment, we systematically tested the risk tolerance for trading stock shares that vary in the initial
price of the shares. Persons inexperienced with the stock market had to set the selling points for 60 stocks in the
case of (a) decreasing or (b) rising prices. First, a stronger risk aversion for falling compared to rising prices was
obtained. Second, the experiment revealed a dramatic increase in risk tolerance the lower the buying prices of the
stocks were; nearly perfectly following a power function (Pearson-R’s>.93). Furthermore, it seemed very difficult for
persons to grasp the consequences of share price neglect, namely that the initial share price has a significant impact
on the readiness to take higher risks, whether in a positive or negative direction. Therefore, we are also referring to
it as a “hidden risk tolerance”. This paper offers insights into irrational decision making in trading stocks. It allows
the formation of estimates regarding trading volume and share price potential on the basis of the initial share price.Furthermore, it provides clues for the consequent reduction of risk-seeking behavior.
To investigate the interrater reliability of stroboscopy evaluations assessed using Poburka's Stroboscopy Evaluation Rating Form (SERF).
Single-factor experiment with repeated measures on the same element.
Evaluations of nine experts pertaining to 68 stroboscopy recordings and 16 SERF variables were analyzed. For the 14 SERF variables possessing interval scale level, interrater reliability was investigated using the intraclass correlations for absolute agreement (ICC-a) and consistency (ICC-c). ICCs-c were computed for both original values and values standardized with respect to raters' means and standard deviations (ipsative values). For the two nominally scaled SERF variables, "vertical level" and "glottal closure" interrater reliability was investigated using kappa coefficients.
For evaluations of single raters, ICCs-a ranged from 0.32 to 0.71, ICCs-c for original values from 0.41 to 0.72, and ICCs-c for ipsative values from 0.43 to 0.72. For mean evaluations of two raters, the corresponding values were 0.48 to 0.83 for ICCs-a, 0.58 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for original values, and 0.60 to 0.84 for ICCs-c for ipsative values. The interval scale variables with the lowest interrater reliabilities were phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity. The kappa coefficients for vertical level and glottal closure were 0.15 and 0.38, respectively.
The interrater reliabilities for vertical level, glottal closure, phase closure, phase symmetry, and regularity are so low that these variables should not be assessed via stroboscopy. For the remaining variables, adequate reliability can be obtained by aggregating evaluations from at least two raters.
Der Artikel identifiziert erstmals den im Titel genannten, bisher unbekannten Ort, die erste Station der Reise durch Persien, und geht auf die weiteren Stationen ein, die Afanasij Nikitin in seinem Reisebericht des XV. Jh.s erwähnt.