Qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning is based on so-called qualitative calculi. Algebraic properties of these calculi have several implications on reasoning algorithms. But what exactly is a qualitative calculus? And to which extent do the qualitative calculi proposed meet these demands? The literature provides various answers to the first question but only few facts about the second. In this paper we identify the minimal requirements to binary spatio-temporal calculi and we discuss the relevance of the according axioms for representation and reasoning. We also analyze existing qualitative calculi and provide a classification involving different notions of relation algebra.
This study examined personality similarity between teachers and their students and its impact on teacher judgement of student achievement in the domains of
reading comprehension and mathematics. Personality similarity was quantified
through intraclass correlations between personality characteristics of 409 dyads of German teachers and their students. This similarity index was combined with teachers’ global and task-specific judgements of student achievement. Personality
similarity has a significant effect on global judgement in both domains under study. Students who are similar to their teacher are judged more positively than students who are dissimilar, even when students’ test performance is controlled. This effect could not be verified for task-specific judgements. Results indicate
that impact of potential sympathy bias in social judgements differs between different types of judgement. That is, global judgements are more likely to be biased than more specific judgements. Theoretical and educational relevance of
the findings are discussed.
The Web Services Business Process Execution language (BPEL) is a standard
for modeling and executing automated processes and is tailor-made for service
orchestration. BPEL specifies a serialization format which every BPEL implementation
has to understand, thus allowing for the portability of processes among runtime engines.
Although the modeling and execution of BPEL processes is portable between engines
to a large degree, the lifecycle management of BPEL processes is not standardized and
varies a lot for different engines. This paper presents a first approach for a uniform
and cloud-based lifecycle management of BPEL processes and engines. We infer a
uniform interface for the lifecycle management from the capabilities of current engines
and provide a prototypic implementation of a tool that manages processes and engines
on a TOSCA-compliant infrastructure.
The German Rectors’ Conference has recommended integrating information literacy (IL) courses into curricula and enhancing the role of libraries in order to create new information structures. This short report gives an overview of the IL activities of German university libraries. It analyses the results of the national IL statistics, presents the work of the IL networks in Germany and shows best practice at university libraries.
Building on Key’s fundamental distinction and Katz’s and Mair’s modifications to this distinction, this chapter describes and analyzes the interaction of German voters and party elites at three distinct levels: the ‘party-in-the-electorate’, the ‘party-in-the-government’ (Key) or ‘party in public office’ (as Katz and Mair put it), and the party organization outside the legislature, particularly the ‘party on the ground’ (Katz and Mair). Our analysis focuses on individual parties and also covers the party system as ‘the system of interactions resulting from inter-party competition’ (Sartori 1976). We will aim to track important continuities in, and changes to, voting behaviour in respect of the main German parties individually and of the party system as a whole, concentrating on the period since unification in 1990. Drawing on a number of theoretical perspectives, including theories of electoral change, theories of organizational reform in political parties (in response to electoral change), and coalition politics at the governmental level, we will develop our argument as follows: after introducing the main parties and analyzing continuities and change in voting behaviour and party membership, we will analyze how political parties have responded to the growing levels of political uncertainty in organizational terms and will seek to address the seemingly paradoxical question why Germany’s party system has remained relatively stable at the governmental level (the party in public office), while parties in the electorate and parties as organizations have become far more fluid and vulnerable. (On the electoral system in Germany, including proportional representation and the statutory minimum of 5 per cent of the national vote a party must achieve to be represented in the Bundestag.
Empirical evidence suggests that sibling structure
influences children’s educational outcomes:
While the negative effect of the number of siblings
is quite consistent, there are mixed findings
for birth order and birth spacing. According to the
resource dilution hypothesis, differences between
siblings occur because siblings have to share family
resources. Having a larger number of siblings,
being a later-born child as well as narrow age
gaps between siblings can affect the parental resources
available for each child, which may thus
negatively affect educational outcome. To study
the effects of sibling structure, we use longitudinal
data from the BiKS-8-14 study at the end of
elementary school, focusing on children’s vocabulary
Our results indicate an expected negative effect
for increasing number of siblings particularly
when children originate from families with a lower
educational background. Regarding birth order,
we also find differential effects by parents’ education,
as only children from less educated families
suffer from being a later-born child. No effects
can be identified for children’s birth gaps in
relation to younger siblings as soon as number of
siblings is being considered, whereas longer spacing
between a child and his/her older siblings is
positively related to vocabulary competences.
With respect to possible changes across time, sibling
effects appear to be rather stable at the end of