The Web Services Business Process Execution language (BPEL) is a standard
for modeling and executing automated processes and is tailor-made for service
orchestration. BPEL specifies a serialization format which every BPEL implementation
has to understand, thus allowing for the portability of processes among runtime engines.
Although the modeling and execution of BPEL processes is portable between engines
to a large degree, the lifecycle management of BPEL processes is not standardized and
varies a lot for different engines. This paper presents a first approach for a uniform
and cloud-based lifecycle management of BPEL processes and engines. We infer a
uniform interface for the lifecycle management from the capabilities of current engines
and provide a prototypic implementation of a tool that manages processes and engines
on a TOSCA-compliant infrastructure.
Investors often influence the strategic decisions of their holdings, such as long-term orientation and investments in intangible assets. Investigating IT capability as a strategic asset, we examine the influence of institutional shareholders' investment horizon and blockholdings on the development of organizational IT capability. We perform a panel data analysis of eleven years of archival data from publicly listed U.S. companies. Our findings show a positive relationship between a firm's ownership structure and the development of its IT capability. In particular, we find that equity owners that remain invested over long periods of time increase firms' likelihood of developing a continuous IT capability. In contrast, investors that can be classified as blockholders do not exert significant influence on their portfolio firms. By linking accounting research on firm ownership with ongoing IS research on IT capability, we provide new insides into the firm-level benefits of long-term oriented institutional investors on IT capability.
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.
Nowadays, business processes and their execution are corner stones in
modern IT landscapes, as multiple process languages and corresponding engines
for these languages have emerged. In practice, it is not feasible to select the best
fitting engine, as engine capabilities are mostly hidden in the engine implementation
and a comparison is hampered by the large differences and high adoption
costs of the engines. We aim to overcome these problems by a) introducing an
abstract layer to access the functionality of the engines uniformly, b) by revealing
the engine capabilities through automated and isolated tests for typical requirements,
and c) support the user in their selection of a process engine by determining
and explaining the fitness of the engines for a single process or a given set of
processes using policy matching against previously revealed engine capabilities.
Early results show the general feasibility of our approach for BPEL engines for a
Keywords: BPM, process engines, engine selection, execution requirements,