With its many traditions, roots, and facets, adult education in Germany is in a developmental stage marked by variety - various institutions, programs, aims and ideas, parallel developments and competition. Adult education providers show little cooperation and coordination among themselves. They are often unaware of other providers that comprise the full scope of the field. Some of the developments can only be understood in the context of German culture, history, and economy. Two central arguments are given in comparative adult education to explain the value of trying to understand adult education practices in other countries (Reischmann, Bron, Jelenc, 1999). On a practical level, “borrowing” is expected to help us adapt successful foreign practices and integrate them into our own practical work - and avoid mistakes and “reinventing the wheel”. On a theoretical level, the international-comparative perspective can help us to overcome ethnocentric blindness, helping us, irritated by observations in a foreign context, to better perceive and understand our own field and system. Certainly cultural differences limit the transfer from one country to another. Comparative research, by helping to understand the differences and similarities as well as their significance for adult education, can clarify the possibilities and limits of understanding and borrowing. Both are indispensable in a world where in many countries experiences in the various fields of adult education are gained and needed.
Im ersten Teil werden die Organisation von Al Qaida analysiert und die Vorgehensweise beim Anschlag am 11. September rekonstruiert sowie Lücken bei der Terrorismusbekämpfung aufgezeigt. Im zweiten Teil werden die programmatischen und institutionellen Änderungen seit 9/11 insbesondere in den USA vorgestellt und kritisch beleuchtet.
The way business processes are organised heavily influences the flexibility and the expenses of enterprises. The capability to address changing market needs in a timely manner and to provide appropriate pricing is indispensable in a world of internationalisation and growing competition. Optimising processes that cross enterprise boundaries potentially is a key success factor in achieving this goal but it requires the information systems of the participating enterprises to be consistently integrated. This gives rise to some challenging tasks. The personnel involved in building up business collaborations comes from different enterprises with different business vocabulary and background which requires extensive communication support. The lack of central technical infrastructure, typically prohibited by business politics, often calls for a distributed and computer-aided collaboration structure, so that the resulting complexity must be handled somehow. Nevertheless robustness is an important factor in building business collaborations as these may exchange goods of considerable value. This technical report proposes the use of a two step modelling approach that separates business logic, modelled in the so-called centralised perspective (CP), from its distributed implementation, modelled in the so-called distributed perspective (DP). The separation of these perspectives enables business people to concentrate on business issues and to solve communication problems in the CP whereas technical staff can concentrate on distribution issues. The use of stringent modelling rules is advised in order to provide the basis for formal analysis techniques as one means to achieve robustness. Considering the choreography of RosettaNet Partner Interface Processes (PIPs) as the subject of my analysis, UML activity diagrams for modelling the CP and WSBPEL for modelling the DP are described as enabling techniques for implementing the proposed two step modelling approach. Further, model checking is applied to validate the CP and DP models in order to detect errors in early design phases. As the adequacy of model checking tools highly depends on the detailed modelling techniques as well as the properties to be checked, a major part of our discussion covers relevant properties and requirements for a model checker.
Information about online presence allows participants of instant messaging (IM) systems to determine whether their prospective communication partners will be able to answer their requests in a timely manner, or not. That is why presence information, combined with the ability to send instant messages, makes IM more personal and closer than other forms of communication such as e-mail. On the other hand, revelation of presence constitutes a potential of misuse by untrustworthy entities. A possible risk is the generation of online logs disclosing user habits. This makes presence information a resource worth protecting. We argue, however, that current IM systems do not take reasonable precautions to protect presence information. We implemented an IM system designed to be robust against attacks to disclose a user’s presence. In contrast to existing systems, it stores presence information in a registry in a way that is only detectable and applicable for intended users and not comprehensible even for the registry itself. We use a distributed hash table (DHT) as registry and apply an anonymous communication network to protect the physical addresses of both senders and receivers of messages.
Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise a new advance in distributed computing. In MAS autonomous software agents flexibly cooperate, coordinate, and compete to provide the desired function(s) of such a system. If some components of a MAS fail or do not provide the desired functionality, the system is expected to autonomously deal with these situations. It is desirable to reduce occurrences of such situations by selecting trustworthy cooperation partners before cooperating with them. This becomes even more desirable and important in an open MAS where arbitrary heterogeneous software agents, deployed by different parties, participate in the MAS, as it becomes more likely that these agents fail or try to exploit the MAS for their own purposes without reciprocation. In order to monitor agent behavior and enable selection of trustworthy cooperation partners, trust or reputation management services can be applied. As there is no central control in an open MAS and it is completely distributed these services themselves have to be distributed. This paper proposes a fully distributed reputation management service for open MAS based on peer-to-peer technology (especially distributed hash tables). A Java-based implementation of that service, which is intended as a plug-in for multi-agent platforms, is also described.
Die Studie gibt Aufschluss über das Redigieren und Kritisieren im Printjournalismus. Sie zeigt, dass beide journalistischen Arbeitsweisen eine große Rolle im Redaktionsalltag spielen. Übereinstimmend wird sowohl dem Redigieren als auch dem Kritisieren von den befragten Journalisten eine hohe Relevanz zugewiesen. Im journalistischen Herstellungsprozess wird diese Bedeutung deutlich. Als Kondensat der Befragung konnten Regeln aufgestellt werden, die das Redigieren und Kritisieren im Printjournalismus anleiten können. Der Bericht basiert auf einer empirischen Untersuchung, die Teil eines Studienprojektes war, das im Sommersemester 2006 im Rahmen einer Übung am Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationswissenschaft der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg verwirklicht wurde. Von den Projektteilnehmern wurden Leitfadeninterviews mit Redakteuren von Printmedien geführt - größtenteils in Redaktionen, zu denen sie durch Praktika und freie Mitarbeit Kontakte haben oder hatten. Das Erhebungsinstrument - der Leitfaden - wurde von den Teilnehmern des Projekts auf Basis der relevanten Literatur formuliert. Die Befragung erfolgte im Juli 2006. Die Untersuchung ist nicht repräsentativ.
Der Bericht gibt einen Überblick über die Ergebnisse der ersten Evaluation der im Wintersemester 2006/2007 eingeführten (Wahl)Pflicht-Bibliothekskurse im Fach Anglistik an der Universitätsbibliothek Bamberg sowie einen kurzen Ausblick auf daraus resultierende Veränderungen.
In recent years peer-to-peer networks have developed from unstructured to structured overlay networks. Structured peer-to-peer overlay networks facilitate a bounded number of messages in the number of peers for querying and publishing content opposed to unstructured networks, which usually flood the network with messages. To prevent the messages from overflooding the network they have a bounded life time, which may cause that some published content will be lost. Structured peer-to-peer networks guarantee that all published content can be found. One well known structured overlay network is the chord distributed hash table. An implementation of chord is only available in C, but not in Java, which is used widely and often in computer science education. This manual describes an open source implementation of chord in Java - called Open Chord - and how it can be used in Java-based applications. It provides a console-based experimentation environment to explore the functionality of chord, as well.
Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) aim to support the Business Process Management paradigm and to ease legacy application integration. Often, they rely on Service-oriented Architecture (SoA). However, do such systems really meet real-world requirements? This paper introduces and discusses a set of criteria which are important for BPMS and applies these criteria in comparing tools from three important vendors, namely IDS Scheer, Oracle and Intalio based on a case study.